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Africa

Africa is a Continent not a Country 

Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area. With more than 900 million people (as of 2005) in 61 territories, it accounts for about 14% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

Area: about 30 244 000 km2 (11 700 000 mi2) including its adjacent islands it covers about 20 percent of Earth's total land area.
Coastline: 30,539 km 18,976 miles

Population: 900 million human inhabitants, about 20 percent of the world's population.
Highest Point: Mount Kilimanjaro - Uhuru Peak on the volcano Kibo, 5,895 m (19 340 ft) in Tanzania.
Largest Lake: Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza; 68 870 sq. km.
Longest River: Nile; 6 695 km.
Languages of Africa: about thousand languages classified in four major language families:
Afro-Asiatic (e.g. Berber lang), Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo (Bantu), and Khoi-San.

Country  Population  Capital City

 Nigeria

131,859,731

Abuja

 Egypt

78,887,007

Cairo

 Ethiopia

74,777,981

Addis Ababa

 Congo-Kinshasa

62,660,551

Brazzaville

 South Africa

44,187,637

Pretoria

 Sudan

41,236,378

Khartoum

 Tanzania

37,445,392

DaresSalaam

 Kenya

34,707,817

Nairobi

 Morocco

33,241,259

Rabat

 Algeria

32,930,091

Algiers

 Uganda

28,195,754

Kampala

 Ghana

22,409,572

Accra

 Mozambique

19,686,505

Maputo

 Madagascar

18,595,469

Antananarivo

 Côte d'Ivoire

17,654,843

Yamoussoukro

 Cameroon

17,340,702

Yaoundé

 Burkina Faso

13,902,972

Ouagadougou

 Zimbabwe

12,236,805

Harare

 Malawi

13,013,926

Lilongwe

 Mali

11,716,829

Bamako

 Senegal

11,987,121

Dakar

 Malawi

13,013,926

Lilongwe

 Niger

12,525,094

Niamey

 Angola

12,127,071

Luanda

 Zambia

11,502,010

Lusaka

 Tunisia

10,175,014

Tunis

 Chad

9,944,201

N'Djamena

 Guinea

9,690,222

Conakry

 Somalia

8,863,338

Mogadishu

 Rwanda

8,648,248

Kigali

 Burundi

8,090,068

Bujumbura

 Benin

7,862,944

Porto-Novo

 Burundi

8,090,068

Bujumbura

 Sierra Leone

6,005,250

Freetown

 Libya

5,900,754

Tripoli

 Togo

5,548,702

Lomé

 Eritrea

4,786,994

Asmara

 Central African Republic

4,303,356

Bangui

 Congo-Brazzaville

3,702,314

Kinshasa

 Mauritania

3,177,388

Nouakchott

 Liberia

3,042,004

Monrovia

 Mauritania

3,177,388

Nouakchott

 Namibia

2,044,147

Windhoek

 Lesotho

2,022,331

Maseru

 Gambia

1,641,564

Banjul

 Botswana

1,639,833

Gaborone

 Guinea-Bissau

1,442,029

Bissau

 Gabon

1,424,906

Libreville

 Mauritius

1,240,827

Port Louis

 Swaziland

1,136,334

Mbabane

 Comoros

690,948

Moroni

 Equatorial Guinea

540,109

Malabo

 Djibouti

486,530

Djibouti

 Cape Verde

420,979

Praia

 Western Sahara

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

278,600

 São Tomé and Príncipe

193,413

Sao Tome

 Seychelles

81,541

Victoria

Saint Helena

7,502

Jamestown

Country Official and national Languages Other spoken Languages
 
Algeria Arabic French, Berber dialects.
Angola Portuguese Narrow Bantu like Umbundu and other African languages.
Benin French Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north).
Botswana English Setswana
Burkina Faso French Native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population.
Burundi Kirundi, French Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area).
Cameroon English, French 24 major African language groups.
Cape Verde Portuguese Kabuverdianu (Crioulo) (a blend of Portuguese and West African words).
Central African Republic French, Sangho (lingua franca and national language) Banda, Gbaya and other tribal languages.
Chad French, Arabic Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects.
Comoros
 
Arabic, French Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic).
Democratic Republic of the Congo French Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba.
Congo, Republic of the French Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread).
Côte d'Ivoire French 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken.
Djibouti French, Arabic Somali, Afar
Egypt Arabic English and French widely understood by educated classes.
Equatorial Guinea Spanish, French pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo.
Eritrea Tigrinya (Tigrigna), Arabic, English Tigré (second major language), Afar, Bedawi, Kunama, other Cushitic languages.
Ethiopia Amharic Tigrinya, Oromo, Gurage, Somali, Arabic, 80 other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Gabon French Bantu languages like Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi.
Gambia, The English Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars.
Ghana English African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Guinea French (spoken by 15-20%) Eight national languages, Soussou (Susu, in coastal Guinea), Peulh (Fulani, in Northrn Guinea), Maninka (Upper Guinea), Kissi (Kissidougou Region), Toma and Guerze (Kpelle) in rain forest Guinea; plus various ethnic groups with their own language.
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Crioulo (a mixture of Portuguese and African), other African languages.
Kenya English, Kiswahili numerous indigenous languages.
Lesotho Sesotho (southern Sotho), English Zulu, Xhosa.
Liberia English 20% some 20 ethnic group languages, of which a few can be written and are used in correspondence.
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Arabic Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities.
Madagascar French, Malagasy  
Malawi English, Nyanja (Chichewa, Chewa) Lomwe, Tumbuka, Yao, other languages important regionally.
Mali French Bambara (Bamanakan), Arabic and numerous dialects of Dogoso, Fulfulde, Koyracini, Senoufou, and Mandinka/Malinké (Maninkakan), Tamasheq are also widely spoken.
Mauritania Arabic Hassaniya Arabic, Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof, French
Mauritius English, French Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bhojpuri
Morocco Arabic Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy.
Mozambique Portuguese (spoken by 27% of population as a second language) Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, numerous other indigenous languages.
Namibia English 7% Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama.
Niger French Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria English Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, Ijaw, Ibibio and about 250 other indigenous languages spoken by the different ethnic groups.
Réunion French Creole widely used
Rwanda Rwanda (Kinyarwanda, Bantu vernacular) French, English Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers.
Saint Helena English  
Sao Tome and Principe Portuguese  
Senegal French Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Seychelles English, French Creole
Sierra Leone English (regular use limited to literate minority) Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
Somalia Somali Arabic, Italian, English
South Africa 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, Pedi, Sesotho (Sotho), siSwati (Swazi), Xitsonga (Tsonga), Tswana, Tshivenda (Venda), isiXhosa, isiZulu
Sudan Arabic Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English. 
Swaziland English (government business conducted in English), siSwati  
 Tanzania, United Republic of Kiswahili (Swahili), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education) Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), Gogo, Haya, Makonde, Nyakyusa, Nyamwezi, Sukuma, Tumbuka, many other local languages.
Togo French (the language of commerce) Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Tunisia Arabic (and the languages of commerce) French (commerce)
Uganda English (used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts) Ganda (Luganda; most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Western Sahara   Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Zambia English major vernaculars: Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages.
Zimbabwe English Chishona (Shona), Sindebele (Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects like: Sotho and Nambya, Shangani, Venda, Chewa, Nyanja, and Tonga.

Geographical Facts

Africa, second-largest of the Earth's seven continents -
Largest Country
Sudan, Republic of, republic in north-eastern Africa, the largest country of the African continent. Sudan has a total area of 2,505,800 sq km (967,490 sq mi).
Smallest Country
The smallest African country is The Seychelles covering an area of 453 sq km but Gambia is the smallest of the mainland African states, covering an area of 11,300 sq km (4,363 sq mi).
Largest City
Egypt's capital city, Cairo, is the largest city in Africa with an estimated 9.2 million population
Highest Point
Mount Kilimanjaro - Uhuru Point - (5895m/19,340 ft) in Tanzania
Lowest Point
the lowest is Lake 'Asal (153 m/502 ft below sea level) in Djibouti
Northernmost tip
is Cape Blanc (Ra's al Abyad;) in Tunisia
Southernmost tip
is Cape Agulhas in South Africa
Largest Lake
Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the is the world's second-largest freshwater lake - covering an area of 69,490 sq km (26,830 sq mi) and lies 1,130 m (3,720 ft) above sea level. Its greatest known depth is 82 m (270 ft).
Deepest Lake
Lake Tanganyika is the deepest lake in Africa reaching at its greatest depth is 1,436 m (4,710 ft), making it the second deepest freshwater lake in the world after Lake Baikal.
Longest River
The River Nile drains north-eastern Africa, and, at 6,650 km (4,132 miles), is the longest river in Africa and in the world. It is formed from the Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia, and the White Nile, which originates at Lake Victoria.
The Great Africa Rift Valley
The Rift Valley extends more than 4,830 km (3,000 mi) from Syria in south-western Asia to Mozambique in south-eastern Africa. The width of the valley ranges from a few miles to more than 160 km (100 mi). In eastern Africa, the valley splits into two branches: the Eastern Rift and the Western Rift
The fault in which the Rift sits is still moving: the western side of the rift is pulling away from the eastern ridge at about 6 mm per year, while in the south it is moving together at a rate of 2 mm per year.
Lake Malawi
Lake Malawi contains the largest number of fish species of any lake in the world, probably over 500 from ten families. Particularly noteworthy are the Cichlidae, of which all but five of over 400 species are endemic to Lake Malawi. The lake contains 30% of all known cichlid species. Of particular interest is the 'mbuna' rock fish.
Namib Desert
The Namib is the world's oldest desert, and the only desert in Africa inhabited by elephant, rhino, giraffe and lion
Namibia - Fish River Canyon
The Fish River canyon is the second largest canyon in the world.
The Sahara Desert
The Sahara Desert  is expanding southwards at an average of 0.8 km (½ mile) a month

sources: CIA World Fact Book, United Nations, U.S. Department of State,