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AIDS 

is short for: 

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Nearly 30 million people have died of AIDS, or complications related to the disease since the beginning of the epidemic. In 2010, 1.8 million people died of AIDS worldwide, a 25 percent decrease since 2005, thanks to effective medications and access to treatment. Yet HIV/AIDS still is the single leading cause of death globally.

At the end of 2010, an estimated 34 million people [31.6 million–35.2 million] were living with HIV worldwide, up 17% from 2001. This reflects the continued large number of new HIV infections and a significant expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy, which has helped reduce AIDS-related deaths, especially in more recent years.

Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.

Although treatments for HIV/AIDS can slow the course of the disease, there is no known cure or HIV vaccine. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the deaths and new infections from HIV/AIDS, but these drugs are expensive and the medications are not available in all countries

The number of people dying of AIDS-related causes fell to 1.8 million [1.6 million–1.9 million] in 2010, down from a peak of 2.2 million [2.1 million–2.5 million] in the mid-2000s. A total of 2.5 million deaths have been averted in low- and middle-income countries since 1995 due to antiretroviral therapy being introduced, according to new calculations by UNAIDS. Much of that success has come in the past two years when rapid scale-up of access to treatment occurred; in 2010 alone, 700 000 AIDSrelated deaths were averted. The proportion of women living with HIV has remained stable at 50% globally, although women are more affected in sub-Saharan Africa (59% of all people living with HIV) and the Caribbean (53%).

There were 2.7 million [2.4 million–2.9 million] new HIV infections in 2010, including an estimated 390 000 [340 000–450 000] among children. This was 15% less than in 2001, and 21% below the number of new infections at the peak of the epidemic in 1997. The number of people becoming infected with HIV is continuing to fall, in some countries more rapidly than others. HIV incidence has fallen in 33 countries, 22 of them in sub-Saharan Africa, the region most affected by the AIDS epidemic.

 

 

 

 

Sub-Saharan Africa 

 

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region most heavily affected by HIV. In 2010, about 68% of all people living with HIV resided in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with only 12% of the global population. Sub-Saharan Africa also accounted for 70% of new HIV infections in 2010, although there was a notable decline in the regional rate of new infections. The epidemic continues to be most severe in southern Africa, with South Africa having more people living with HIV (an estimated 5.6 million) than any other country in the world. 

Almost half of the deaths from AIDS-related illnesses in 2010 occurred in southern Africa. AIDS has claimed at least one million lives annually in sub- Saharan Africa since 1998. Since then, however, AIDS-related deaths have steadily decreased, as free antiretroviral therapy has become more widely available in the region. 

The total number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa has dropped by more than 26%, down to 1.9 million [1.7 million–2.1 million] from the estimated 2.6 million [2.4 million–2.8 million] at the height of the epidemic in 1997. In 22 sub-Saharan countries, research shows HIV incidence declined by more than 25% between 2001 and 2009. This includes some of the world’s largest epidemics in Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The annual HIV incidence in South Africa, though still high, dropped by a third between 2001 and 2009 from 2.4% [2.1%–2.6%] to 1.5% [1.3%–1.8%]. Similarly, the epidemics in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia appear to be declining. The epidemics in Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland seem to be levelling off, albeit at unacceptably high levels.

 

 

Caribbean 

 

The Caribbean has the second highest regional HIV prevalence after sub- Saharan Africa, although the epidemic has slowed considerably since the mid-1990s.

 In the Caribbean region, new HIV infections were reduced by a third from 2001 levels. HIV incidence has decreased by an estimated 25% in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica since 2001, while in Haiti it has declined by about 12%. Slowing HIV incidence and increasing access to HIV prevention services for pregnant women have led to a steep decline in the number of children newly infected with HIV and in AIDS-related deaths among children. 

Unprotected sex is the primary mode of transmission in the Caribbean. The number of people living with HIV has also declined slightly since the early 2000s. Increased access to antiretroviral therapy has led to a considerable drop in mortality associated with AIDS. 

 

Asia 

 

Although the rate of HIV prevalence is substantially lower in Asia than in some other regions, the absolute size of the Asian population means it is the second largest grouping of people living with HIV. In South and South-East Asia, the estimated 270 000 [230 000–340 000] new HIV infections in 2010 was 40% less than at the epidemic’s peak in 1996. In India, the country with the largest number of people living with HIV in the region, new HIV infections fell by 56%. The prevalence of HIV among key populations at higher risk of infection – notably sex workers, people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men – is high in several Asian countries although over time, the virus is spreading to other populations. The overall trends in this region hide important variations in the epidemics, both between and within countries. In many Asian countries, national epidemics are concentrated in relatively few provinces. In China, for example, five provinces account for 53% of the people living with HIV1, while a disproportionately large share of Indonesia’s burden is found in its Papua and West Papua provinces.

 

Eastern Europe and Central Asia 

 

In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, there was a 250% increase in the number of people living with HIV from 2001 to 2010. The Russian Federation and Ukraine account for almost 90% of the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region’s epidemic. Injecting drug use remains the leading cause of HIV infection in this region, although considerable transmission also occurs to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. There is little indication that the epidemic has stabilized in the region, with new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths continuing to increase. After slowing in the early 2000s, HIV incidence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia has been accelerating again since 2008. Unlike most other regions, AIDS-related deaths continue to rise in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. 250% In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the number of people living with HIV rose 250% from 2001 to 2010.

 

 

Middle-East and North Africa

 

 HIV-related trends in the Middle East and North Africa vary, as incidence, prevalence, and AIDS-related deaths are on the rise in some countries, while in others the epidemic is stable. Generally, HIV prevalence in the region is low, except in Djibouti and Southern Sudan, where the epidemic is becoming generalized. 

 

 

Latin America 

 

The HIV epidemics in Latin America are generally stable. A steady decrease in new annual HIV infections since 1996 levelled off in the early 2000s and has remained steady since then at 100 000 [73 000–135 000] each year. The total number of people living with HIV in this region continues to grow. That increase is partly attributable to the increase in people living with HIV who receive antiretroviral therapy, which has helped reduce the number of annual AIDS-related deaths. More than one third (36%) of adults living with HIV in this region in 2010 were women. The number of children younger than 15 living with HIV in this region has declined. There was a considerable decrease in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths among children between 2001 and 2010. 

 

Oceania 

 

The number of annual new HIV infections in Oceania increased slowly until the early 2000s, and then declined. The number of people living with HIV in this region reached an estimated 54 000 [48 000–62 000] at the end of 2010, about 34% more than the estimate for 2001. AIDS-related mortality has decreased considerably. 

 

North America, and Western and Central Europe 

 

The HIV epidemic in North America and Western and Central Europe remains stubbornly steady, despite universal access to treatment, care and support and widespread awareness of the epidemic and the causes of HIV infection. HIV incidence has changed little since 2004. The total number of people living with HIV in North America and Western and Central Europe reached an estimated 2.2 million [1.9 million–2.7 million] in 2010, about one third (34%) more than in 2001. More than half (about 1.2 million) of the people with HIV in this region live in the United States of America. The rising number of people living with HIV reflects the wide-scale availability of antiretroviral therapy, especially in the countries with the largest epidemics, which has significantly reduced AIDS-related mortality. The number of AIDS-related deaths has varied little since 2000, despite the 34% increase in the number of people living with HIV. Recent trends vary across the region. Rates of diagnosed HIV cases doubled between 2000 and 2009 in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia and increased by more than 50% in the United Kingdom. On the other hand, new HIV diagnoses decreased by more than 20% in Latvia, Portugal and Romania.

 

 

 

 

United States Aids Statistics

 

 

 
 

In 2009, the estimated number of diagnoses of HIV infection in the 40 states and 5 U.S. dependent areas with confidential name-based HIV infection reporting was 42,959. Of these, 42,011 were in the 40 states and 948 were in the 5 dependent areas. In the 40 states, diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents totaled 41,845 with 31,872 diagnoses in males and 9,973 diagnoses in females, Among children under age 13 years, there were an estimated 166 diagnoses of HIV infection in 2009.

 

 

What is HIV?

HIV stands for 'human immunodeficiency virus'. HIV is a virus (of the type called

retrovirus) that infects cells of the human immune system (mainly CD4 positive T cells

and macrophages—key components of the cellular immune system), and destroys or

impairs their function. Infection with this virus results in the progressive deterioration of

the immune system, leading to 'immune deficiency'.

The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfill its role of fighting

off infections and diseases. Immunodeficient people are more susceptible to a wide

range of infections, most of which are rare among people without immune deficiency.

Infections associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as 'opportunistic

infections', because they take advantage of a weakened immune system.

What is AIDS?

AIDS stands for 'acquired immunodeficiency syndrome' and is a surveillance definition

based on signs, symptoms, infections, and cancers associated with the deficiency of the

immune system that stems from infection with HIV.

What are the symptoms of HIV?

Most people infected with HIV do not know that they have become infected, because

they do not feel ill immediately after infection. However, some people at the time of

seroconversion develop “Acute retroviral syndrome” which is a glandular fever-like

illness with fever, rash, joint pains and enlarged lymph nodes.

Seroconversion refers to the development of antibodies to HIV and usually takes place

between 1 and 6 weeks after HIV infection has happened.

Whether or not HIV infection causes initial symptoms, an HIV-infected person is highly

infectious during this initial period and can transmit the virus to another person. The only

way to determine whether HIV is present in a person's body is by testing for HIV

antibodies or for HIV itself.

After HIV has caused progressive deterioration of the immune system, increased

susceptibility to infections may lead to symptoms.

 

 

 

There is clear evidence that AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, which is short for:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV is a virus. Illnesses caused by a virus cannot be cured by antibiotics. (Although medicines may help to reduce the symptoms) People who have a virus - such as a cold- usually get better after a few days or weeks because the white blood cells of the immune system - which are responsible for fighting diseases - successfully overcomes them.

When a person is infected with HIV the immune system tries to fight off the virus and does make some antibodies, but these antibodies are not able to defeat HIV.
The person is said to be HIV Positive. Many people do not feel ill at all when they are first infected. They may have no symptoms for a long time. They have not yet got AIDS.

HIV acts by gradually destroying the immune system of the infected person. After about 5 to 10 years (although much earlier in a minority of cases) the immune system becomes so weak - or 'deficient'- that it cannot fight off infections as it used to.

Eventually the infected person may lose weight and become ill with diseases like persistent severe diarrhea, fever, or pneumonia, or skin cancer. He or she has now developed AIDS.
At the moment, in spite of much research, there is no cure for HIV or for AIDS and so, sadly, it is almost certain that people diagnosed with AIDS will die.

 

 

 

These are the most common ways that HIV is transmitted from one person to another:

  • by having sexual contact with an HIV-infected person

  • by sharing needles or injection equipment with an injection drug user who is infected with HIV

  • from HIV-infected women to babies before or during birth, or through breast-feeding after birth

HIV also can be transmitted through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors.

HIV is not transmitted by day-to-day contact in the workplace, schools, or social settings. HIV is not transmitted through shaking hands, hugging, or a casual kiss. You cannot become infected from a toilet seat, a drinking fountain, a door knob, dishes, drinking glasses, food, or pets.

The Red Ribbon is an international symbol of AIDS awareness that is worn by people all year round and particularly around world AIDS day to demonstrate care and concern about HIV and AIDS, and to remind others of the need for their support and commitment. The red ribbon started as a "grass roots" effort, and as a result there is no official red ribbon, and many people make their own. To make your own ribbons, get some ordinary red ribbon, about 1.5 cms wide and cut it into strips about 15 cms long. Then fold at the top into an inverted "V" shape and put a safety pin through the center which you use to attach the ribbon to your clothing.

 

AIDS/HIV Science Facts

What is a virus?

A submicroscopic organism that infects another organism's cells and can cause harm.  Viruses can be composed of DNA or RNA genetic material.

What are some examples of viruses?

Common cold, measles, chicken pox, flu, hepatitis, herpes, polio, …

What is a retrovirus?

A virus that stores its genetic information as RNA, but translates back to DNA before replicating.  This process is the reverse of the usual process and requires a special viral enzyme called Reverse Transcriptase.  HIV is one example of a retrovirus.
 

What is the structure of HIV?

The structure of HIV is like most other viruses.  It consists of:

An envelope, which provides structure to the virus and houses the nucleic acid core.
Outer surface glycoproteins, which act as "keys" that can latch onto the outside of T cells, and help inject the nucleic acid into the cell.
An RNA genome, which contains the information and directions on infecting the cell, replicating, and performing the actions that eventually destroy the cell.
 

What is the immune system?

The body's defense against foreign invaders and cancerous cells.  It involves B cells that produce antibodies, T cells that directly attack foreign cells, and phagocytes that eat up foreign material.

How does HIV affect the immune system?

HIV infects helper T cells that display a certain protein, called the CD4 receptor.  Once inside the cell, HIV takes over the cell and the virus replicates.  In a couple of days, the cell dies and the new virus particles go on to infect more helper T cells.

What are the stages of the disease?

Stage 1 - Primary HIV infection - lasts a few weeks, flu-like symptoms
Stage 2 - Latent period - may last years, patient has no symptoms
Stage 3 - Symptomatic HIV infection - as more and more T cells are destroyed, the body        becomes overly susceptible to opportunistic infections and cancers
Stage 4 - AIDS - helper T cell count is <200, patient develops 1 or more opportunistic infections

What is an opportunistic infection?

An illness that normal people with healthy immune systems can fight off.  People with AIDS cannot fight these infections and will eventually die.  Even the common flu can kill a person with AIDS.

HIV does not survive well outside of the body.  There are many myths about how HIV is passed. Here are the facts:

  • You cannot get HIV through casual contact such as shaking hands or hugging a person with HIV/AIDS.

  • You cannot get HIV from using a public telephone, drinking fountain, restroom, swimming pool, Jacuzzi, or hot tub.

  • You cannot get HIV from sharing a drink.

  • You cannot get HIV from being coughed or sneezed on by a person with HIV/AIDS.

  • You cannot get HIV from giving blood.

  • You cannot get HIV from a mosquito bite.


HIV/AIDS Glossary

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A disease of the body's immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is characterized by the death of CD4 cells (an important part of the body's immune system), which leaves the body vulnerable to life-threatening conditions such as infections and cancers.

Antibody
Also known as immunoglobulin. A protein produced by the body's immune system that recognizes and fights infectious organisms and other foreign substances that enter the body. Each antibody is specific to a particular piece of an infectious organism or other foreign substance.

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
Treatment with drugs that inhibit the ability of retroviruses (such as HIV) to multiply in the body. The antiretroviral therapy recommended for HIV infection is referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which uses a combination of medications to attack HIV at different points in its life cycle.

CD4 Cell
Also known as helper T cell or CD4 lymphocyte. A type of infection-fighting white blood cell that carries the CD4 receptor on its surface. CD4 cells coordinate the immune response, signaling other cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. The number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood is an indicator of the health of the immune system. HIV infects and kills CD4 cells, leading to a weakened immune system

CD4 Cell Count
A measurement of the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood. The CD4 count is one of the most useful indicators of the health of the immune system and the progression of HIV/AIDS. A CD4 cell count is used by health care providers to determine when to begin, interrupt, or halt anti-HIV therapy; when to give preventive treatment for opportunistic infections; and to measure response to treatment. A normal CD4 cell count is between 500 and 1,400 cells/mm3 of blood, but an individual's CD4 count can vary. In HIV-infected individuals, a CD4 count at or below 200 cells/mm3 is considered an AIDS-defining condition.

Clinical Trial
A research study that uses human volunteers to answer specific health questions. Carefully conducted clinical trials are regarded as the fastest and safest way to find effective treatments for diseases and conditions, as well as other ways to improve health. Interventional trials use controlled conditions to determine whether experimental treatments or new ways of using known treatments are safe and effective. Observational trials gather information about health issues from groups of people in their natural settings.

Co-Infection
Infection with more than one virus, bacterium, or other micro-organism at a given time. For example, an HIV-infected individual may be co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) or tuberculosis (TB).

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
The virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is in the retrovirus family, and two types have been identified: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for most HIV infections throughout the world, while HIV-2 is found primarily in West Africa.

Immune System
The collection of cells and organs whose role is to protect the body from foreign invaders. Includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, B and T cells, and antigen-presenting cells.

Investigational Drug
Also known as experimental drug. A drug that has not been approved by the FDA to treat a particular disease or condition. The safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug must be tested in clinical trials before the manufacturer can request FDA approval for a specific use of the drug.

Latency
The time period when an infectious organism is in the body but is not producing any noticeable symptoms. In HIV disease, latency usually occurs in the early years of infection. Also refers to the period when HIV has integrated its genome into a cell's DNA but has not yet begun to replicate.

Microbicide
A natural or man-made substance that kills microbes. Researchers are studying the use of microbicides to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection.

Opportunistic Infections (OIs)
Illnesses caused by various organisms that occur in people with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV/AIDS. OIs common in people with AIDS include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; cryptosporidiosis; histoplasmosis; toxoplasmosis; other parasitic, viral, and fungal infections; and some types of cancers.

T Cell
A type of lymphocyte (disease-fighting white blood cell). The "T" stands for the thymus, where T cells mature. T cells include CD4 cells and CD8 cells, which are both critical components of the body's immune system.

Therapeutic HIV Vaccine
Any HIV vaccine used for the treatment of an HIV-infected person. Therapeutic HIV vaccines are designed to boost an individual's immune response to HIV infection in order to better control the virus. This therapeutic approach is currently being tested in clinical trials

Vaccine
A substance that stimulates the body’s immune response in order to prevent or control an infection. A vaccine is typically made up of some part of a bacteria or virus that cannot itself cause an infection. Researchers are testing vaccines both to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS; however, there is currently no vaccine approved for use outside of clinical trials.

HIV & AIDS Timeline 

1930s

• Researchers believe that sometime in the 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) jumped to humans who butchered or ate chimpanzee bush meat in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The virus becomes HIV-1 the most widespread form found today

1959

• The world’s first known case of AIDS has been traced to a sample of blood plasma from a man who died in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1959

1960s

• HIV-2, which is restricted to West Africa, is thought to have transferred to people from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau during the 1960s

• A genetic analysis of HIV in 2003 suggests that it may have first arrived in the United States in about 1968

1970s

• During the 1970s it continues to spread undetected in the US and around the world - the pandemic has begun

1981

• A high prevalence of both a rare type of skin cancer - Kaposi’s Sarcoma - and pneumonia are found in young gay men in New York and California, US. These are the first documented cases of AIDS. By the end of the year 121 people are known to have died from the mysterious affliction

1982

• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) scientists, in Atlanta, US, predict that the immune system disorder affecting gay men is due to an infection. They establish the term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and determine that aside from gay men, other groups at risk are injecting drug users, people of Haitian origin and haemophiliacs

• By 1982 AIDS had been detected on five continents

• It is revealed that a wasting disorder known in Africa as “slim disease” is a form of AIDS

1983

• AIDS epidemics are developing in Europe: one in gay men who have visited the US, another in people with links to central Africa

• Investigations begin into the occurrence of AIDS in Rwanda, Zaire and other African nations

1984

• Using recently developed techniques, the retrovirus responsible for AIDS is independently discovered by Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, and Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute in Washington DC, US. It is later named the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

• Cases of AIDS passed on through heterosexual intercourse begin to appear

1985

• The first International AIDS conference is held in Atlanta, US

• Following the previous year’s discovery of the HIV virus, the first HIV test is licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

• US blood banks are screened for the virus

1987

• AZT (zidovudine), the first antiretroviral drug, becomes available to treat HIV sufferers after a successful clinical trial. The drug works by blocking the action of HIV's enzyme reverse transcriptase, stopping the virus from replicating in cells. AZT slows down the course of AIDS, delaying death

• By 1987, 16,908 people have died from AIDS in the US. In total 71,751 cases of AIDS had been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), 47,022 in the US

• Estimating that as many as 5 to 10 million people could be infected with HIV worldwide, the WHO launches its Global Programme on AIDS

1988

• WHO declares the first World AIDS Day on 1 December

1991

• The red ribbon becomes an international symbol of AIDS awareness

1992

• In the US, AIDS becomes the leading cause of death for 24 to 44 year old men

• The first combination drug therapies for HIV are introduced, when the US FDA approves the use of the ddC, which also blocks reverse transcriptase, alongside AZT. HIV drug cocktails are more effective and the multi-pronged attacks slow down the development of drug resistance

1994

• Using AZT to reduce the transmission of HIV from pregnant women to unborn fetuses is recommended in the US. A study shows it cuts the rate of maternal transmission to 8% - in women taking a placebo the rate was 25%

• Over 12 after the discovery of AIDS, the US government launches its first national media campaign explicitly promoting condoms

1995

• Saquinavir, a new type of protease inhibitor drug, becomes available to treat

• HIV. These drugs result in defective HIV forming, which cannot infect new cells. This new more powerful drug heralds the start of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) - a combination therapy regimen using a “cocktail” of drugs

• One million cases of AIDS have been reported to the WHO, 19.5 million people have been infected with HIV since the epidemic began

1996

• The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) - a non-profit organisation based in New York City - is set up to speed the search for an HIV vaccine

• 90% of all people infected with HIV now live in the developing world

1997

• Annual US death rates from AIDS dramatically fall for the first time, due to the introduction of HAART

• UN announces that 40 million children could have lost one or both parents to AIDS by 2010

1998

• The first full-scale trial of a vaccine against HIV begins in the US

• Two teams of researchers begin developing vaccines targeted against the strains of HIV prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa

• An HIV strain resistant to all protease inhibitor drugs currently on the market turns up in San Francisco. Unusual side effects, such as the growth of fatty pads and heart problems, are occurring in some users of protease inhibitors

1999

• Edward Hooper releases his book, The River, which accuses doctors who tested a polio vaccine in 1950s Africa of unintentionally starting the AIDS epidemic. The idea is rejected in 2001 by a wide group of researchers

• 33 million people are infected with HIV, and 14 million have died of AIDS worldwide

• AIDS becomes the fourth biggest killer worldwide

2001

• An Indian company starts to sell discounted copies of expensive patented AIDS drugs to a medical charity in Africa. The move forces some pharmaceutical companies to slash prices

2003

• Five million people are newly infected with AIDS during 2003, the greatest number in one year since the epidemic began. Three million die from AIDS in the same year

2004

• A vaccine for AIDS is still years away, warns the IAVI. Less than 3% of all money devoted to AIDS goes towards developing a vaccine for the disease

• HIV blocking microbicides go on trial. The vaginal creams may provide a powerful weapon against the spread of HIV. Animal studies show some prevent infection in up to 75% of cases

• A drug that stops the HIV virus from stitching itself into human chromosomes is found to fight AIDS in an animal study. In the face of emerging drug-resistant HIV strains, the find could offer a new approach

2005

• Around 40 million people are infected with AIDS worldwide

• A highly resistant strain of HIV linked to rapid progression to AIDS is identified in New York City, US

 

2006

  • June 5 marks a quarter century since first AIDS case reported

  • First Annual National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the United States

  • U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White CARE Act for the third time

2007

  • President Bush calls on Congress to reauthorize PEPFAR at $30 billion over 5 year

2008

  • U.S. CDC releases new HIV incidence estimates for the United States, showing that the U.S. epidemic is worse than previously thought.

2009

  • President Obama launches the Global Health Initiative (GHI), a six-year, $63 billion effort to develop a comprehensive approach to addressing global health in low and middle income countries, with PEPFAR as a core component.

  • The Obama Administration officially lifts HIV travel and immigration ban by removing the final regulatory barriers to entry, to take effect in January 2010. Leads to announcement that the International AIDS Conference will return to the United States for the first time in more than 20 years, and be held in be held in Washington, DC in 2012.

2010

  • Obama Administration releases first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States

2011

  • June 5 marks30 years since first AIDS case reported

 

Sources: New Scientist, WHO, UNAIDS, New York Times, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, AIDS Action

For More Information Visit the sites Below

 

 

Credit: The United Nations, Aids.gov ,CDC