Air is the ocean we breathe. Air
supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air
is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can
release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans,
plants, and animals.
There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of
pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the
greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these
problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for
the whole environment.
One type of air pollution is the
release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy.
Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The
particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about
.0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black
carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes,
and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities
believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques
can release significant quanitites of soot into the air.
Another type of pollution is the
release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon
monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further
chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain.
Pollution also needs to be
considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these
pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In
the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so
our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore
important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution.
pollution affects everyone. Every day, the average adult breathes over 3,000
gallons of air.
The major types of air pollution
A different mix of vapors and gaseous air pollutants is found in outdoor and
indoor environments. The most common gaseous pollutants are carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ozone. A
number of sources produce these chemical compounds but the major man-made source
is the burning of fossil fuel. Indoor air pollution is caused by cigarette
smoking, the use of certain construction materials, cleaning products, and home
furnishings. Outdoor gaseous pollutants come from volcanoes, fires, and
industry, and in some areas may be substantial. The most commonly recognized
type of air pollution is smog. Smog generally refers to a condition caused by
the action of sunlight on exhaust gases from motor vehicles and factories.
The Greenhouse effect
prevents the sun's heat from rising out of the atmosphere and flowing back into
space. This warms the earth's surface causing the green house effect. While a
certain amount of green house gases in the atmosphere are necessary to make the
earth warm, activities such as the burning of fossil fuels are creating a
gaseous layer that is too dense to allow the heat to escape. Many scientists
believe this is causing global warming. Other gases contributing to the problem
include cholrofluorocarbons (CFC), methane, nitrous oxides, and ozone.
Acid rain forms
when moisture in the air interacts with nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide
released by factories, power plants, and motor vehicles that burn coal or oil.
This interaction of gases with water vapor forms sulfuric acid and nitric acids.
Eventually these chemicals fall to earth as precipitation, or acid rain. Acid
rain pollutants may travel long distances, with winds carrying them thousands of
miles before they fall as dew, drizzle, fog, snow or rain.
Damage to the ozone layer
is primarily caused by the use of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs). Ozone is a
form of oxygen found in the earth's upper atmosphere. The thin layer of ozone
molecules in the atmosphere absorb some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays
before it reaches the earth's surface, making life on earth possible. The
depletion of ozone is causing higher levels of UV radiation on earth,
endangering both plants and animals.
is the general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets
found in the air. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or
smoke. Others are so small they can be detected only with an electron
microscope. When particulate matter is breathed in, it can irritate and damage
the lungs causing breathing problems. Fine particles are easily inhaled deeply
into the lungs where they can be absorbed into the blood stream or remain
embedded for long periods of time.
Normally pollutants rise or flow away from their sources without building up to
unsafe levels. Wind patterns, clouds, rain, and temperature can affect how
quickly pollutants move away from an area. Weather patterns that can trap air
pollution in valleys or move it across the globe may be able to damage pristine
environments far from the original sources.
image for United States
Children breathe even more air per pound of body weight and are
thus more susceptible to air pollution. Millions of people live in areas where
urban smog, very small particles, and toxic pollutants pose serious health
concerns. These health concerns can stem from either short-term or long-term
exposure to air pollution. When people have a short-term exposure to air
pollutants above certain levels, they may experience temporary health concerns,
such as eye irritation and burning, throat irritation, and difficulty breathing.
Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause chronic health concerns, such as
cancer and damage to the body's immune, neurological, reproductive, and
respiratory systems. The problem of air pollution is also found outside of major
urban centers. Air pollution can be wide-ranging as well as persistent. Many air
pollutants, such as those that form urban smog and toxic compounds, remain in
the environment for long periods of time. These air pollutants can also be
carried hundreds of miles by winds and can thus affect areas far-removed from
the source of the pollution.
air pollution map produced by Envisat's SCIAMACHY
Children are very sensitive to the
effects of air pollution. Children's lungs are still developing and
polluted air may contribute to permanent lung damage. Children breathe more
rapidly than do adults, and inhale more pollution per pound of body weight
than adults. Therefore, their lungs have a greater chance for being exposed
to harmful air pollutants.
Air Quality Index
AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or
polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern
for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few
hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five
major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone,
particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide,
sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. For each of these pollutants, EPA has
established national air quality standards to protect public health
.Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose
the greatest threat to human health in The United States.
corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of
health concern and what they mean are:
AQI is 0 - 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air
pollution poses little or no risk.
AQI is 51 - 100. Air quality is acceptable; however, for some
pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small
number of people. For example, people who are unusually sensitive to
ozone may experience respiratory symptoms.
for Sensitive Groups" AQI is 101 - 150. Although general public
is not likely to be affected at this AQI range, people with lung
disease, older adults and children are at a greater risk from exposure
to ozone, whereas persons with heart and lung disease, older adults
and children are at greater risk from the presence of particles in the
AQI is 151 - 200. Everyone may begin to experience some adverse health
effects, and members of the sensitive groups may experience more
serious effects. .
Unhealthy" AQI is 201 - 300. This would trigger a health alert
signifying that everyone may experience more serious health effects.
AQI greater than 300. This would trigger a health warnings of
emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be
EPA has assigned a specific
color to each AQI category to make it easier for people to understand
quickly whether air pollution is reaching unhealthy levels in their
communities. For example, the color orange means that conditions are
"unhealthy for sensitive groups," while red means that
conditions may be "unhealthy for everyone," and so on.
is a kind of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau ( a word
or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or
loaded meaning) of smoke and fog.
refers to a noxious mixture of air pollutants that can often be seen as a
haze in the air. It often stays for an extended period of time over densely
populated cities or urban areas, such as London, New York, Los Angeles, Mexico
City, Houston, Toronto, Athens, Beijing andHong Kong.
temperature inversion occurs when air close to the earth is cooler than the air
above it. Under these conditions the pollution cannot rise and be dispersed.
Cities surrounded by mountains also experience trapping of pollution. Inversion
can happen in any season. Winter inversions are likely to cause particulate and
cabon monoxide pollution. Summer inversions are more likely to create smog.
Smog can make breathing more difficult -- even for healthy
people -- and it can make us more susceptible to cardio-respiratory
diseases. Even healthy young adults breathe less efficiently on days when
the air is heavily polluted, especially if exercising outdoors.
China air on a day after rain (left) and a sunny but smoggy day (right)
taken by Bobak Ha'Eri
vulnerable to smog are people with heart or lung disease, the elderly and
small children. The two main ingredients in smog that affect our health are
ground-level ozone and fine airborne particles.
Ground-level ozone is a colorless
and highly irritating gas that forms just above the earth's surface. It is
called a "secondary" pollutant because it is produced when two primary
pollutants react in sunlight and stagnant air. These two primary pollutants are
nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). NOx and VOC come
from natural sources as well as human activities.
NOx are nitrogen-oxygen compounds
that include the gases nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and are produced
mostly by burning fossil fuels. VOC are carbon-containing gases and vapors such
as gasoline fumes (but excluding carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and
Human activities are responsible
for the increases in ground-level ozone in recent years. About 95 per cent of
nitrogen oxides from human activity come from the burning of coal, gas and oil
in motor vehicles, homes, industries and power plants. VOC come mainly from fuel
combustion and from the evaporation of liquid fuels and solvents.
Ozone not only affects human
health, it can damage vegetation and decrease the productivity of some crops. It
can also injure flowers and shrubs and may contribute to forest decline in some
parts of Canada. Ozone can also damage synthetic materials, cause cracks in
rubber, accelerate fading of dyes, and speed deterioration of some paints and
coatings. As well, it damages cotton, acetate, nylon, polyester and other
Airborne particles are
microscopic and remain suspended in the air for some time. Particles can be both
primary pollutants and secondary pollutants, sent directly into the atmosphere
in the form of windblown dust and soil, sea salt spray, pollen and spores.
Secondary particles are formed through chemical reactions involving nitrogen
oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOCs and ammonia.
Particles give smog its color and
affect visibility. Depending on the type of particles, the air can appear
yellowish-brown, or even white. Like ozone, particles are believed to have
adverse effects on vegetation, and on various synthetic and natural surfaces. .
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2
) is a principal member of the family of nitrogen oxides (NOx ). It is a toxic,
irritating gas that results from all combustion processes.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
is a colorless gas that smells like burnt matches. It can be chemically
transformed into acidic pollutants such as sulfuric acid and sulfates (sulfates
are a major component of fine particles). The main sources of airborne SO2
are coal-fired power generating stations and non-ferrous ore smelters. Sulfur
dioxide is also the main cause of acid rain, which can damage crops, forests and
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a
colorless, odorless and tasteless gas that comes primarily from automobile
"Acid rain" is a broad
term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material) from
the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric
acids. The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain formation result
from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and
man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel combustion. In the United States,
roughly 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx come from electric power generation
that relies on burning fossil fuels, like coal. Acid rain occurs when these
gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form
various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and
nitric acid. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released from power
plants and other sources, prevailing winds blow these compounds across state and
national borders, sometimes over hundreds of miles.
Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow. If the acid chemicals in
the air are blown into areas where the weather is wet, the acids can fall to the
ground in the form of rain, snow, fog, or mist. As this acidic water flows over
and through the ground, it affects a variety of plants and animals. The strength
of the effects depends on several factors, including how acidic the water is;
the chemistry and buffering capacity of the soils involved; and the types of
fish, trees, and other living things that rely on the water.
In areas where the weather is dry, the acid chemicals may become incorporated
into dust or smoke and fall to the ground through dry deposition, sticking to
the ground, buildings, homes, cars, and trees. Dry deposited gases and particles
can be washed from these surfaces by rainstorms, leading to increased runoff.
This runoff water makes the resulting mixture more acidic. About half of the
acidity in the atmosphere falls back to earth through dry deposition.
Acid rain causes acidification of
lakes and streams and contributes to the damage of trees at high elevations (for
example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In
addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints,
including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our
nation's cultural heritage. Prior to falling to the earth, sulfur dioxide (SO2)
and nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases and their particulate matter derivatives—sulfates
and nitrates—contribute to visibility degradation and harm public health.
Some of the
problems attributed to acid rain include:
Trees lose some of the
protection in their leaves, leaving them more at risk from frost and
Tree roots may also become
stunted, so they can't take up as many nutrients.
Soils lose some of their
Increasing acid levels may
cause problems for aquatic animals and plants. Some fish may have trouble
breathing for example.
Acid rain may dissolve the
stonework and mortar of buildings causing structural problems of buildings.
How Acid Rain Harms Trees
Acid rain does not usually kill trees directly. Instead, it is more likely to
weaken trees by damaging their leaves, limiting the nutrients available to them,
or exposing them to toxic substances slowly released from the soil. Quite often,
injury or death of trees is a result of these effects of acid rain in
combination with one or more additional threats.
rain, woods, Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic
Scientists know that acidic water
dissolves the nutrients and helpful minerals in the soil and then washes them
away before trees and other plants can use them to grow. At the same time, acid
rain causes the release of substances that are toxic to trees and plants, such
as aluminum, into the soil. Scientists believe that this combination of loss of
soil nutrients and increase of toxic aluminum may be one way that acid rain
harms trees. Such substances also wash away in the runoff and are carried into
streams, rivers, and lakes. More of these substances are released from the soil
when the rainfall is more acidic.
However, trees can be damaged by
acid rain even if the soil is well buffered. Forests in high mountain regions
often are exposed to greater amounts of acid than other forests because they
tend to be surrounded by acidic clouds and fog that are more acidic than
rainfall. Scientists believe that when leaves are frequently bathed in this acid
fog, essential nutrients in their leaves and needles are stripped away. This
loss of nutrients in their foliage makes trees more susceptible to damage by
other environmental factors, particularly cold winter weather.
Acid rain looks, feels, and
tastes just like clean rain. The harm to people from acid rain is not direct.
Walking in acid rain, or even swimming in an acid lake, is no more dangerous
than walking or swimming in clean water. However, the pollutants that cause acid
rain—sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)—do damage human health.
These gases interact in the atmosphere to form fine sulfate and nitrate
particles that can be transported long distances by winds and inhaled deep into
people's lungs. Fine particles can also penetrate indoors. Many scientific
studies have identified a relationship between elevated levels of fine particles
and increased illness and premature death from heart and lung disorders, such as
asthma and bronchitis.
Based on health concerns, SO2 and
NOx have historically been regulated under the Clean Air Act, including the Acid
Rain Program. In the eastern U.S., sulfate aerosols make up about 25 percent of
fine particles. By lowering SO2 and NOx emissions from power generation, the
Acid Rain Program will reduce the levels of fine sulfate and nitrate particles
and so reduce the incidence and the severity of these health problems. When
fully implemented by the year 2010, the public health benefits of the Acid Rain
Program are estimated to be valued at $50 billion annually, due to decreased
mortality, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits.
Decreases in NOx emissions are
also expected to have a beneficial impact on human health by reducing the
nitrogen oxides available to react with volatile organic compounds and form
ozone. Ozone impacts on human health include a number of morbidity and mortality
risks associated with lung inflammation, including asthma and emphysema.
Wet deposition refers to acidic
rain, fog, and snow. If the acid chemicals in the air are blown into areas where
the weather is wet, the acids can fall to the ground in the form of rain, snow,
fog, or mist. As this acidic water flows over and through the ground, it affects
a variety of plants and animals. The strength of the effects depends on several
factors, including how acidic the water is; the chemistry and buffering capacity
of the soils involved; and the types of fish, trees, and other living things
that rely on the water.
In areas where the weather is
dry, the acid chemicals may become incorporated into dust or smoke and fall to
the ground through dry deposition, sticking to the ground, buildings, homes,
cars, and trees. Dry deposited gases and particles can be washed from these
surfaces by rainstorms, leading to increased runoff. This runoff water makes the
resulting mixture more acidic. About half of the acidity in the atmosphere falls
back to earth through dry deposition.
The Greenhouse Effect, also
referred to as global warming, is generally believed to come from the build up
of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced when fuels
are burned. Plants convert carbon dioxide back to oxygen, but the release of
carbon dioxide from human activities is higher than the world's plants can
process. The situation is made worse since many of the earth's forests are being
removed, and plant life is being damaged by acid rain. Thus, the amount of
carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. This buildup acts like a
blanket and traps heat close to the surface of our earth. Changes of even a few
degrees will affect us all through changes in the climate and even the
possibility that the polar ice caps may melt. (One of the consequences of polar
ice cap melting would be a rise in global sea level, resulting in widespread
Ozone depletion is another result
of pollution. Chemicals released by our activities affect the stratosphere , one
of the atmospheric layers surrounding earth. The ozone layer in the stratosphere
protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Release of
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) from aerosol cans, cooling systems and refrigerator
equipment removes some of the ozone, causing "holes"; to open up in
this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. Ultraviolet radiation
is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife.
and Air pollution
The United States the use of SUVS (Suburban Utility Vehicles) is
the latest fad and passion. SUVS on average releases 5,600 pounds of CO2
into the atmosphere each year, double the amount of the average car driven
the same distance.
Air travel has become commonplace for vacationers, but
not with out it's unseen costs to the environment. A round trip flight from
New York to Los Angeles release as much as one automobile does in an entire year.
On a yearly basis all air travel releases 600 million tons of carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere.
round trip flight from NY
to LA = 2,000 pounds of CO2
source: US Department
pollution continues to worsen do to the population growth and scant
environmental restrictions in many nations. It is becoming increasingly
hazardous to the health of The Earth.
are six major outdoor air pollutants- ozone, particulate matter, carbon
monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.
GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio, based on data from MOPITT
Agency and University of Toronto.) Satellite: Terra Sensor: MOPITT
Terra spacecraft has assembled the most complete view ever of the world's
air pollution travelling through the atmosphere, across continents and
oceans. For the first time, policymakers and scientists now have a way to
identify the major sources of air pollution and to closely track where the
pollution goes, anywhere on Earth. The false colors in these images
represent levels of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere, ranging from
about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion
(red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels). Carbon monoxide is a
gaseous byproduct from the burning of fossil fuels, in industry and
automobiles, as well as burning of forests and grasslands. Notice in the
April 30, 2000, image that levels of carbon monoxide are much higher in the
Northern Hemisphere, where human population and human industry is much
greater than in the Southern Hemisphere. However, in the October 30, 2000,
image notice the immense plumes of the gas emitted from forest and grassland
fires burning in South America and Southern Africa.
think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or
office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include
Biological contaminants like mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household
products and pesticides Gases such as radon and carbon monoxide Materials
used in the building such as asbestos, formaldehyde and lead
The levels of
pollutants in the air inside homes, schools, and other buildings can be
higher than the level of pollutants in the outdoor air. Indoor air
pollution comprises a mixture of contaminants penetrating from outdoors
and those generated indoors. In the last several years, the amount of
scientific evidence has indicated that the air within homes and other
buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air in even the
largest and most industrialized cities. Other research indicates that
people spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors. In addition,
people who may be exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods
of time are often those most susceptible to the effects of indoor
pollution. Such groups include the young, the elderly, and the chronically
ill, especially those suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular
POLLUTION SOURCES IN THE HOME
There are many sources of
indoor air pollution in homes. These sources of indoor air pollution
include combustion sources (oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, tobacco
products), building materials, wet or damp carpet, cabinetry or furniture
made of certain pressed wood products; household cleaning products,
central heating and cooling systems, humidification devices, and outdoor
sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution.
The relative importance of
any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and
how hazardous those emissions are. In some cases, factors such as how old
the source is and whether it is properly maintained are significant. For
example, an improperly adjusted gas stove can emit significantly more
carbon monoxide than one that is properly adjusted.
Radon and environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS) are the two indoor air pollutants of greatest concern
from a health perspective. Radon is a naturally occurring gas that
is odorless, colorless, and radioactive. Environmental tobacco smoke
(ETS) is the smoke emitted from the burning of a cigarette, pipe, or
cigar, and smoke inhaled by a smoker. It is a complex mix of more than
4,000 chemical compounds, containing many known or suspected carcinogens
and toxic agents, including particles, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.
More than three billion
people worldwide continue to depend on solid fuels, including biomass
fuels (wood, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, for their energy
Cooking and heating with
solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of
indoor air pollution. Indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging
pollutants, such as small particles and carbon monoxide, and particulate
pollution levels may be 20 times higher than accepted guideline values.
- Poor indoor air quality
can cause or contribute to the development of chronic respiratory
diseases such as asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In addition,
it can cause headaches, dry eyes, nasal congestion, nausea and
fatigue. People who already have respiratory diseases are at greater
pollutants, including molds, bacteria, viruses, pollen, dust mites,
and animal dander promote poor indoor air quality and may be a major
cause of days lost from work and school. In office buildings, heating,
cooling, and ventilation systems are frequent sources of biological
substances that are inhaled, leading to breathing problems.
help prevent growth of mold when humidity is high, make sure
bathrooms, kitchens and basements have good air circulation and are
cleaned often. The basement in particular may need a dehumidifier. And
remember, the water in the dehumidifier must be emptied and the
container cleaned often to prevent forming mildew.
estimated one out of every 15 homes in the United States has radon
levels above 4pci/L, the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency-recommended action level. Radon, a naturally occurring gas, can
enter the home through cracks in the foundation floor and walls,
drains, and other openings. Indoor radon exposure is estimated to be
the second leading cause of lung cancer. A recent report by the
National Research Council estimates that radon is responsible for
between 15,000 and 21,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the United
tobacco smoke (ETS) also called "secondhand smoke," a major
indoor air pollutant, contains about 4,000 chemicals, including 200
known poisons, such as formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, as well as 43
causes an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths and 35,000 to 50,000
heart disease deaths in non-smokers, as well as 150,000 to 300,000
cases of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 18
months of age each year.
is a common chemical, found primarily in adhesive or bonding agents
for many materials found in households and offices, including carpets,
upholstery, particle board, and plywood paneling. The release of
formaldehyde into the air may cause health problems, such as coughing;
eye, nose, and throat irritation; skin rashes, headaches, and
is the name given to a group of microscopic mineral fibers that are
flexible and durable and will not burn. Asbestos fibers are light and
small enough to remain airborne; they can be inhaled into the lungs
and can cause asbestosis (scarring of the lung tissue), lung cancer
and mesothelioma, a relatively uncommon cancer of the lining of the
lung or abdominal cavity.
asbestos products are found in the home, including roofing and
flooring materials, wall and pipe insulation, spackling compounds,
cement, coating materials, heating equipment, and acoustic insulation.
These products are a potential problem indoors only if the
asbestos-containing material is disturbed and becomes airborne, or
when it disintegrates with age.
systems and other home appliances using gas, fuel, or wood, can
produce several combustion products, of which the most dangerous are
carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Fuel burning stoves,
furnaces, fireplaces, heaters, water heaters, and dryers are all
monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas that interferes with the
distribution of oxygen to the body. Depending on the amount inhaled,
this gas can impede coordination, worsen cardiovascular conditions,
and produce fatigue, headache, confusion, nausea, and dizziness. Very
high levels can cause death.
dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that irritates the mucous
membranes in the eye, nose and throat and causes shortness of breath
after exposure to high concentrations. Prolonged exposure to high
levels of this gas can damage respiratory tissue and may lead to
cleaning agents, personal care products, pesticides, paints, hobby
products, and solvents may be sources of hundreds of potentially
harmful chemicals. Such components in many household and personal care
products can cause dizziness, nausea, allergic reactions,
eye/skin/respiratory tract irritation, and cancer.
EPA, CDC,Environment Canada, UNEP, NASA, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory,
American Lung association