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Terrorism

 

"Fear is apparently a formidable ally"
 

-Xenophon(430-354)

Terrorism is the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

 

Terrorism is not new ,it has a history that is at least 2000 years old. Although targets, victims, causes and justifications for the use of terror have changed, the methods of terrorism have remained the same throughout history. The only major change is the technology of terrorism. 

Terrorism today is a worldwide problem.

 

The FBI describes terrorism as either domestic or international, depending on the origin, base, and objectives of the terrorists: 

 

• Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. 

 

• International terrorism involves violent acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any state, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or any state. These acts appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping. International terrorist acts occur outside the United States or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to coerce or intimidate, or the locale in which the perpetrations operate or seek asylum.

Terrorists often use threats to:

  • Create fear among the public.
  • Try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism.
  • Get immediate publicity for their causes.

Acts of terrorism include threats of terrorism; assassinations; kidnappings; hijackings; bomb scares and bombings; cyber attacks (computer-based); and the use of chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological weapons.

High-risk targets for acts of terrorism include military and civilian government facilities, international airports, large cities, and high-profile landmarks. Terrorists might also target large public gatherings, water and food supplies, utilities, and corporate centers. Further, terrorists are capable of spreading fear by sending explosives or chemical and biological agents through the mail.

Terrorism should not be confused with traditional warfare. In war, a target is selected because it has military value and will achieve a specific military objective. The terrorist chooses targets that have symbolic or economic value or targets that have public value in order to get the society’s attention and cause governments to change policies.

 

 

Types of Terrorism

 

  • weapons of mass destruction-A weapon of mass destruction causes damage to the infrastructure of a society. Targets for mass destruction can include bridges, dams, water treatment plants, computer systems and any other structure.

  •  weapons of mass casualty-A weapon of mass casualty causes massive sickness and/or death. Biological and chemical weapons are weapons of mass casualty.

  •   weapons of mass disruption-Weapons of mass disruption cause social, political and/or economic disruption to society.

Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large numbers of people, and devastating economic loss.

Recent technological advances and ongoing international political unrest are components of the increased risk to national security.

Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. FTO designations play a critical role in our fight against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business.

Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations

Date Designated

Name

10/8/1997

Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

10/8/1997

Aum Shinrikyo (AUM)

10/8/1997

Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)

10/8/1997

Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group - IG)

10/8/1997

HAMAS

10/8/1997

Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)

10/8/1997

Hizballah

10/8/1997

Kahane Chai (Kach)

10/8/1997

Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK, aka Kongra-Gel)

10/8/1997

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

10/8/1997

National Liberation Army (ELN)

10/8/1997

Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

10/8/1997

Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

10/8/1997

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

10/8/1997

PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)

10/8/1997

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

10/8/1997

Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)

10/8/1997

Shining Path (SL)

10/8/1999

al-Qa’ida (AQ)

9/25/2000

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

5/16/2001

Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA)

12/26/2001

Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)

12/26/2001

Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LeT)

3/27/2002

Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (AAMB)

3/27/2002

Asbat al-Ansar (AAA)

3/27/2002

al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

8/9/2002

Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA)

10/23/2002

Jemaah Islamiya (JI)

1/30/2003

Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ)

3/22/2004

Ansar al-Islam (AAI)

7/13/2004

Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)

12/17/2004

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (formerly al-Qa'ida in Iraq)

6/17/2005

Islamic Jihad Union (IJU)

3/5/2008

Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B)

3/18/2008

al-Shabaab

5/18/2009

Revolutionary Struggle (RS)

7/2/2009

Kata'ib Hizballah (KH)

1/19/2010

al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

8/6/2010

Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI)

9/1/2010

Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

11/4/2010

Jundallah

5/23/2011

Army of Islam (AOI)

9/19/2011

Indian Mujahedeen (IM)

3/13/2012

Jemaah Anshorut Tauhid (JAT)

5/30/2012

Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)

9/19/2012

Haqqani Network (HQN)

3/22/2013

Ansar al-Dine (AAD)

11/14/2013

Boko Haram

11/14/2013

Ansaru

12/19/2013

al-Mulathamun Battalion (AMB)

1/13/2014

Ansar al-Shari'a in Benghazi

1/13/2014

Ansar al-Shari'a in Darnah

1/13/2014

Ansar al-Shari'a in Tunisia

4/10/2014

ISIL Sinai Province (formerly Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis)

5/15/2014

al-Nusrah Front

8/20/2014

Mujahidin Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (MSC)

9/30/2015

Jaysh Rijal al-Tariq al Naqshabandi (JRTN)

1/14/2016

ISIL-Khorasan (ISIL-K)

5/20/2016

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's Branch in Libya (ISIL-Libya)

7/1/2016

Al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent

8/17/2017

Hizbul Mujahideen (HM)

2/28/2018

ISIS-Bangladesh

2/28/2018

ISIS-Philippines

2/28/2018

ISIS-West Africa

5/23/2018

ISIS-Greater Sahara

7/11/2018

al-Ashtar Brigades (AAB)

9/6/2018

Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM)

State sponsors of terrorism provide critical support to many non-state terrorist groups. Without state sponsors, these groups would have greater difficulty obtaining the funds, weapons, materials, and secure areas they require to plan and conduct operations. The United States will continue to insist that these countries end the support they give to terrorist groups.
Country Date of Designation
Cuba 1 March 1982
Iran 19 January 1984
Sudan 12 August 1993
Syria 29 December 1979
The designation of countries that repeatedly provide support for acts of international terrorism as state sponsors of terrorism carries with it four main sets of US Government sanctions:
  1. A ban on arms-related exports and sales.
  2. Controls over exports of dual-use items, requiring 30-day Congressional notification for goods or services that could significantly enhance the terrorist-list country’s military capability or ability to support terrorism.
  3. Prohibitions on economic assistance.
  4. Imposition of miscellaneous financial and other restrictions, including:
  • Requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions;
  • Exception from the jurisdictional immunity in US courts of state sponsor countries, and all former state sponsor countries (with the exception of Iraq), with respect to claims for money damages for personal injury or death caused by certain acts of terrorism, torture, or extrajudicial killing, or the provision of material support or resources for such acts;
  • Denying companies and individuals tax credits for income earned in terrorist-list countries;
  • Denial of duty-free treatment of goods exported to the United States;
  • Authority to prohibit any US citizen from engaging in a financial transaction with a terrorist-list government without a Treasury Department license; and
  • Prohibition of Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies in which a state sponsor government owns or controls a significant interest.

 

 

 

http://www.un.org/terrorism

http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism

http://www.nctc.gov/site/index.html

 

Credit: The FBI