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Nikola Tesla

I“The scientists of today think deeply instead of clearly. One must be sane to think clearly, but one can think deeply and be quite insane.” -Nikola Tesla

“If I would be fortunate to achieve some of my ideals, it would be on the behalf of the whole of humanity.” ― Nikola Tesla

t’s hard to imagine what life would be like without our electrical grid system, powering everything from lights and appliances to computers and businesses using safe, efficient, and affordable alternating current electricity. Or how different the world would be without the benefits of wi-fi, radio, remote controls, and robotics. These and many other advancements were based on the inventions of one of history’s greatest scientists and humanitarians: Nikola Tesla. He held over three hundred patents, but was only recognized for some, indicating many of his ideas were tested and failed or never became well known.

Born into the Serbian family of Orthodox priest Milutin Tesla and Georgina “Ðuka” Tesla, nee Mandic. At that time the village of Smiljan, near Gospic (today in Croatia) lay in the military border zone (often referred to in Lika as the Military Frontier), a special region of the Habsburg Monarchy under the Emperor Franz Joseph I.

By the time Nikola Tesla was six years old, he had already started experimenting and inventing. His keen interest in nature and the way things work, combined with intelligence and curiosity, led to childhood inventions such as a motor powered by June bugs, air piston gun, and frog catching device.

 In elementary school he built water turbines and dreamed of using Niagara Falls to generate power, a dream that he saw come to life in 1896.

Tesla’s inventions included:

  • AC Power (alternating current)
  • Tesla Coil
  • Magnifying Transmitter
  • Tesla Turbine
  • Shadowgraph
  • Radio
  • Neon Lamp
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Induction Motor
  • Radio Controlled Boat

Nikola Tesla’s Best-Known Invention — the Alternating Current


Without question, the most important inventions from Nikola Tesla involve his contributions to alternating current (AC). It’s essential to note that he did not invent or even discover AC, but his inventions made AC applicable for widespread use, helping to electrify the world.The story of how Tesla’s AC current came to be the dominant power system is impossible to tell without talking about Thomas Edison. In his early career Tesla worked for Edison, whose company had developed direct current (DC). DC is similar to a battery, in that it only sends power out. The problem with DC is that the electricity loses power as it gets farther out. That’s when Tesla developed his advancements in AC, which not only sends power out, but also brings power back to the source. This made it much more feasible to send large amounts of energy over a large area.Edison hated AC and thought that Tesla was completely wrong on the topic, leading to a rift between the two.

His work caught the attention of engineer and businessman George Westinghouse, who bought most of Edison’s patents involving AC.A pivotal moment in the history of electricity came down to lighting the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893. Edison and Westinghouse both submitted quotes with Edison saying he could light the whole fair for $554,000, while Westinghouse said it could be done for $399,000. Westinghouse won the contract, and after the fair AC became more popular and, eventually, the dominant electrical system that we still use today.

The Tesla Coil

Perhaps the most familiar symbol of Tesla’s work is the Tesla coil, embodied in the tower that was erected at what is now the last remaining laboratory located in Shoreham, New York, the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe.

The Tesla coil was invented in 1891 and uses two coils, a primary and a secondary, with each coil having its own capacitor. A capacitor, like a battery, stores energy. The coils are connected to a spark gap, which is just open air where the spark can generate, and the result is that the Tesla Coil can shoot lightning bolts, send electric currents through the body and create electron winds.Tesla developed this innovation because he was obsessed with powering cities wirelessly. Today, the Tesla Coil is mostly used for entertainment and can be seen in places likescience centers and museums, and some elements of it are also used in radios. The importance of the Tesla Coil comes from the fact that it helped engineers understand the nature of electricity how to use it.

Magnifying Transmitter

Building upon the revelations of the Tesla coil, Tesla sought to offer wireless power for free to all by transmitting information from one tower to another using resonance. The currents were sent from one circuit to the other, building in frequency until lightning sparked from one tower to the other. By connecting a wire to the tower and running it around his lab, he powered his laboratory wirelessly. He demonstrated the effect on stage to audiences using light bulbs that were not connected to any power source. The magnifying transmitter succeeded in transmitting an electrical current a kilometer away.

Tesla Turbine

Tesla developed a piston engine to power automobiles using combustion to rotate disks.  At the time, commonly used turbines were less efficient and relied on blades. Tesla’s invention merged many disks to create a centrifugal pump. By moving fluid in the path of least resistance, his turbine was more fuel-efficient. His turbine is also known as “…the boundary-layer turbine, cohesion-type turbine, and Prandtl-layer turbine it uses the boundary-layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine.”

Smooth disks with nozzles circulate fluid around the edge of the disk. As the disk spins, the fluid adheres to the edge of the disk and is drawn from the edge of disk to the center. It works by adhesion rather than friction, resulting in greater efficiency.

The Shadowgraph

The Shadowgraph is another name for x-rays, but Tesla’s term is actually more depictive of the process. An x-ray creates a silhouette of the area captured by passing radioactive waves through the human body. Although the invention was initially developed by Rontgen, Tesla made improvements to the technique to render clearer images.


Before his lab burned down, Tesla was working on developing a radio intended to transmit a signal fifty miles. Prior to its completion, however, another gentleman received a patent for a similar radio design in England. Had he succeeded, Nikola Tesla’s invention would have surpassed the Brit’s invention in strength.

Neon Lamp

The neon lamp (or sign) was Tesla’s modification of existing neon light technology to form words and designs. Neon signs continue to exist worldwide, lighting up bars, casinos, hotels, and other signs along the roadway.

Hydroelectric Power

The Niagara Falls Commission selected Tesla to design the hydroelectric power generator at Niagara Falls using his alternating power technology. Considered the first power plant, Tesla’s technology was used throughout the world to provide electricity to the masses.

Induction Motor

Using electromagnets to spin, Tesla’s induction motor currently powers everyday household items such as vacuums, hairdryers and power tools.

Radio-controlled Boat

Tesla used radio transmission to power the first radio-controlled toy boat, controlling its engine, lighting and steering with a remote control. Today’s drones are based on this technology. While some viewed his invention as a contribution to warfare, i.e. torpedoes, Tesla considered it the beginning of robotic technology which would eventually handle the majority of labor for man.

Timeline Nikola Tesla

1856, exact stroke of midnight between July 9th and 10th, Nikola Tesla was born to Serbian parents as a subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Lika, in what is now known as Croatia. His father, named Milutin, an orthodox priest and his mother, Djourka, was a homemaker who invented many household items. He had two older sisters, Milka and Angelina, an older brother, Danilo (Dane), and one younger sister, Marica.

1861, Tesla is five years old, playing outside watching his older brother Dane, twelve years old, riding his horse, an excellent horseman.  Djourka is inside preparing the family meal, when Dane’s horse rears and throws him to the ground, hitting his head. Nikola yells as everyone comes running, but Dane is killed. Djourka screams! Nikola has nightmares over the incident.

1862, Tesla at 6 years old; his family moved to Gospic. During his schooling at the Real Gymnasium (equivalent to junior high school) Tesla did well at linguistics but truly shined in mathematics. He calculated the answers to problems so quickly that at first, his instructors thought the lad was cheating. Both his father and his uncle taught at the school.

1862, Nikola is six years old, playing outside, when he comes across a running stream. It occurs to him to put his hand in the water and stroke it in a downward motion. He finds some wood and a rough cut wooden disk left behind from a lumbering operation. He cuts a h*** through its center to force a somewhat straight branch, which he rests in two sticks after forcing it into rocks at either side of the brook. The lower part of the disk rests in the water and the currents force it to turn. He finds endless curiosity in watching his crude device obtain power from the brook. Niagara Falls. He begins using the sticks in three’s and from here on he looks at all objects divisible by three.

1863, Tesla’s family moves to Gospic’; a nearby town, where Tesla’s father was offed a post in the Serbian church. His father wanted to get away from the memories of Dane’s passing.

1866, Tesla is ten years old attending the “Normal School”. One day while walking on the grassy knoll surrounding the little white house where the Tesla family resided, and a small white church where his father preaches, sits along the edge of the property. Tesla is pacing, holding his head with both hands in pain as he is getting a powerful episode of flashes of visions and strong bolts of light three times. The family is invited to a town picnic, where the new firefighting equipment, operated by a nearby river, will be demonstrated. When the apparatus is in place, no water comes out of the hose. Tesla immediately jumps into the river, releasing a kink in the hose .The town cheers for the brilliant young boy. When looking at a book, he sees a picture of Niagara Falls. He feels it is a waste of water and knows someday he will go there and capture energy. Still struggling with his flashes he said “These were at first blurred and indistinct and would flit away when I tried to concentrate my attention upon them, but by and by I succeeded in fixing them. I soon discovered that my best comfort was attained if I simply went on in my vision farther and farther getting new impressions all of the time and so I began to travel in my mind. Every night, sometimes during the day; always when alone. I would start on my journeys; see new places, cities and countries.

1867, Tesla is eleven years old. While visiting his Aunt Stanka, she noticed Nikola is running a fever. There was an epidemic of Cholera in the area. Concerned for his well-being, she insisted he stay a while before going home. He was promised a good book by Mark Twain would be waiting for him on his bedside, which always made him feel better. He became seriously ill and almost to an unconscious state.  Concerned, his father told him “the cholera is consuming you. I’ve lost one son, I do not want to lose another. Nikola, you must will yourself back to health and follow my footsteps in the Ministry.” The family all gathers around in prayer. A few days later, the doctor made a house visit and examines Nikola with his family by his bedside. The doctor said “medically, I’ve done all I can for him”. His father replies, “he has so much to live for, this boy has a brilliant mind, and will do great things”. Nikola, in a weak voice, asks his father, “if I get better, may I please go to the Reel Gymnasium to study engineering?” His father replies “yes, if you get better I will send you to the best technical institute, but you must get better, do you hear me, you must get better!” Nikola gives a faint smile.

1868, Nikola is twelve years old in the kitchen sitting at the table next to his mother, who is using a hand beater she made herself with wood and metal to stir eggs. She invented many useful items that made life around the Tesla home easier. Nikola was influenced by her inventions and her ability to visualize them in her head before executing them. She was known to tie three knots with one single eyelash. Nikola began displaying his obsessions with washing his hands, repeating his actions three times and inability to touch anyone, called Obsession Compulsive Disorder. His mother found a way to show affection to him by putting her hand on the table next to his, feeling the energy between the two human sources. She explains to him his special gift and that his daily practice of discipline will aid him to meet the many accomplishments he will contribute to mankind. She believed he would change the world and taught him to utilize his ability to mentally visualize his inventions in a 3-D image. Nikola gave away the sweet-cakes his mother made for him in his school lunch to challenge his discipline on an every- day basis.

Tesla’s father caught him reading his favorite book, “The son of Aba” after bedtime. He took all of the candles away so Tesla couldn’t read, Tesla out smarted his father by saving the shavings from the candles and mold them to make a new candle. Then he put cloth under the doorway so his father could not see any light coming from his room.

1870, Nikola is fourteen years and the family moves to Karlovac, where attends the Reel Gymnasium in Karlovac, an advanced school and discovered his aptitude for physics; a four-year course that only took Nikola three years to finish with honors at the age of seventeen, even-though he was stricken with Malaria shortly after his arrival in the mosquito-infested swampy lowlands of Karlovac. Nikola was bedridden at times, which he almost died and often took his school books home to read and memorize them when he was unable to attend classes. One professor of physics had a profound impression on Nikola who was a “clever and original experimenter” and amazed Tesla with feats he performed with laboratory apparatus” and it was because of him that Tesla made up his mind to become an engineer and inventor. By seventeen, Tesla fluently spoke Serbo-Croatian, Latin, Italian, French, German, English, and converse in three more languages. Tesla, ready to graduate, received a failing grade in mathematics. He was shocked! Tesla immediately made an appointment with the director of the school, telling him that the teacher must have gotten his paper confused with another student. The Director sided with the teacher, so Tesla asked to take the final exam over. To the amazement of the director, Tesla got a perfect score.

1875, Tesla now nineteen years old, six foot six inches tall, piercing blue eyes, his hair combed back and meticulous in a fine tailored suit and hat with white gloves (to avoid hand contact), attends the Austrian Polytechnic School in Graz on a Military Border scholarship. In the first year, Tesla never missed a lecture and made the highest grades possible and started a Serbian culture club. One day while attending a class taught by the highly respected Professor Poeschl who was demonstrating the Gramme dynamo prototype direct current system, Tesla raised his hand to suggest to the class that the commutator was not necessary. Professor Poeschl ridiculed Tesla in front of the class, causing him great distress, knowing he was right in his assessment, Tesla reverted to his OCD, running to the bathroom and washing his hands three times. Affected by the incident over his three years there he developed an obsession with study, gambling and alternating current. In 1878, failing exams, because of unpreparedness (he would often play billiards for 24-hour stretches). Tesla lost his scholarship at the end of his second year and took up gambling. Near the end of the third year, Tesla stopped attending lectures and dropped out the following year.

1879, Tesla’s father died.

1880, Tesla is admitted to the mental hospital in Budapest, Hungry with severe OCD, and flashes of light and mental images that he was having difficulty controlling. His sensitivity was so strong that he could hear a clock ticking three rooms away. He steps over cracks and every action, such as opening a door is done three times. He begins to feel much better focusing his ability to invent in his mind. He receives a visit from a school friend and they take a walk through the gardens surrounding the grounds. Tesla asks if his friend could leave his pocket watch with the nurse, as not to disturb the intensity of the ticking in his mind. They turn a corner as Tesla recites a poem, when suddenly he gets his Awe- awe moment, drawing the demonstration in the dirt pathway, he realizes that there is no need for the commutator and the excitation can be provided by a rotating magnetic field that will provide the need result creating a true square wave frequency to deliver energy. His friend is confused, having trouble visualizing the concept, but Tesla is so confident that he has concluded a break-through that will forever change the delivery of light on the planet. The missing puzzle that humiliated him in front of all his classmates by Professor Poeschl, Tesla so overwhelmed he must sit down on the bench next to them and tries to hide the tear rolling down his face. This break-through has been haunting him for years, confirming he was right all along from Professor Poeschl’s dismissal of his concept.   

1881, Tesla begins working for the American Telephone Company in Budapest. He became the chief electrician to the company and quickly advanced as the engineer to the Yugosav government and the country’s first telephone system. He developed a telephone repeater (sometimes called an amplifier) this was one of the first wireless telephones, which could act as an audio speaker.

1882, Tesla moved to Paris to work as an assistant engineer for the Continental Edison Company. His position was designing improvements to electric equipment, resolving many problems with their Direct Current dynamos. That same year, Tesla conceived the induction motor and began developing various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (he received patents in 1888). Tesla visualized the rotating fields, which translated his design of the induction motor.

1884 May, Tesla is 28 years old walking in Paris with his luggage in hand, meticulously dressed with his white gloves. In his luggage is a ticket to board the ship Saturnia to America, with two additional tailored suits, gloves and money. He carries in his coat pocket “Right of Passage” papers, a letter from Professor Batchlor saying “Dear Mr. Edison, I know of two great men, one is you and the other is the young man standing before you, Sincerely Charles Batchlor”. In his pant pocket is four cents. Tesla is so happy, ready for his journey to America to work for Mr. Thomas Edison all paid for by his two uncles on his mother’s side, Peter and Pajo Mandic. Suddenly, he is grabbed by three robbers who hurl him to the ground and take his suitcase. A small crowd gathers around him, assisting the tall 6’6” Tesla back to his feet. Shaken, he asks for the nearest café to clean himself up. After washing up three times, he makes his way to the ship and finds the Ship Deck Officer. He explains the situation and lets him know that he has a photographic memory and knows the long ticket number. The Deck Officer can’t believe it and agrees to take the number and check with his superior to let Tesla on the ship, providing no one else claims the ticket. As Tesla waits he visualizes mathematical graphics divisible by three using the port holes (Insert Graphic). The Deck Officer returns amazed that the number matches, allowing Tesla to board the ship.

Tesla is sitting at the small desk in his ship room. Laid out in front of him is his schematic of his three-phase alternating current, the letter from Professor Batchlor, his “rite of passage” paper, and four cents. He rearranges the items three times before he is satisfied. He stops and picks up the schematic drawing of his A.C invention and proudly smiles. Suddenly, he hears voices screaming, “mutiny, mutiny”, as the rumble of people running by his room. He runs out of his room, through the hall-way and out along the deck. A burst of people come from behind him, knocking him off of his balance. The tall lanky torso that frames Tesla’s body catches him against the rail and almost flips him over the side of the ship. He holds on tight and pulls himself back up on the deck.

At this point, Tesla, taller than everyone else, walks with a self-confident, poised, meticulously groomed arrogance. His all-knowing intelligence permeates the room that grants him numerous dining invitations to some of the wealthiest high-class socialites of the world. His intellect to articulate visionary ideas for the future of mankind, and his ability to speak many languages adds to the intrigue of everyone around him.

1884 June  6, Tesla arrives in America excited to work for the famous Thomas Edison and show him his design of Alternating Current, confident it will be well received, as well as his vast ability of understanding the existing Direct Current system. As he walks through the streets of New York, he is noticed by passer byers for his demeanor and height, as he notices the crooked hanging wires above him that sporadically shoots out sparks and as a horse and buggy ride by, a wire from the ground sparks, scaring the horse and startling Tesla as he looks up to see a sign that reads “Edison Electric Company”.

1884,Tesla enters the Gerlach Hotel and checks in by signing in the “guest book”. Tesla request room 333 from Mr. Edward Earl, the hotel manager. Rent is due at the end of the week, so Tesla is confident he will be employed by the Edison Electric Company and well-received with his plans for Alternating Current, especially since he has just witnessed the faulty Direct Current system installed throughout the city. Much worse than he anticipated with his experience and knowledge working with Direct Current in Paris and Belgrade. He request three sets of towels to be delivered daily and nine clothes hangers. He anticipates great financial gain with the many inventions he envisions in his head, since money has always come easy for him. He request and is given the name of the best restaurant in town, Delmonico’s. Again, Tesla at the hotel room desk, takes out all of his belongings and arranges them three times. The schematic of Alternating Current, the letter from Professor Batchlor, his rite of passage paper and four cents. He washes out his gloves in the sink and whips down his suit and hat.                

1884, next morning, Tesla, confident, poised, meticulous, walks the streets of New York as people take a second look at the tall well-dressed young man. He turns the corner to Pearl Street careful not to step on any cracks, and enters the very busy office of the Edison Electric Company. Employees are running all around, as the receptionist is on the telephone speaking to Mrs. Vanderbilt, who is very upset and screaming on the telephone that her curtains have caught fire from the generator installed on the property. Direct current has become very costly, requiring a generator to be placed every mile for mass lighting and for home installation a generator is needed for each house, only allowing the wealthy to afford the luxury of electricity. Additionally, heavy copper wire must be used on each generator.  Edison, with a wrinkled suit, scruffily hair and unshaven, frantically comes into the front office just as the receptionist puts down the telephone to explain to him the situation and that Mrs. Vanderbilt will only speak with him. His aggressive manor quickly changes to a softer demeanor. After he assures her that everything will be taken care of, and hangs up. He demands his two top engineers, Glitson and Smith go over to the Vanderbilt house and repair the generator and tells the receptionist to find the best interior decorator to order new curtains. The hectic office has everyone scrambling around to get street generators that have broken out in fires, under control. Edison storms back to his office. The receptionist, who has noticed the good-looking Tesla, asks how she can help him. Tesla tells her he is from Serbia and has worked at the Edison subsidiary company in Paris and Belgrade and has a letter to Mr. Edison from Professor Charles Batchlor. Reluctant to disturb Edison, she cannot resist the charming Tesla. After hearing Tesla was sent with a recommendation from Charles Batchlor, Edison allows him a few moments. Tesla, ducking under the door way to enter the office, stands before the famous Thomas Edison. Unimpressed, he reads the letter, but turns Tesla down for employment. Just then a junior engineer bursts into the office frazzled to share the news that the SS Oregon’s ship generator has caught fire and the captain is in a fury. The ship is scheduled to set sail the next day. Edison demands two engineers go over to fix the problem, but is told all engineers are out in the field and the two top engineers are at the Vanderbilt house. He turns to Tesla and asks if he can fix the problem. Without hesitation, Tesla’s confidence convinces Edison to allow him the opportunity to show him his engineering skills. Hours later in the middle of the night, Edison receives a phone call from junior engineer who took Tesla to the SS Oregon. Impressed at Tesla’s unique engineering skills, Edison offers him a job. Tesla offers his design of alternating current, but Edison will have nothing to do with it and snaps at Tesla that he will fire him on the spot if he hears one word about alternating current. Tesla convinces Edison of his skills in solving the many issues with direct current at a one-hundred percent success rate and that he can improve the existing direct current system by thirty-percent within a year. Edison replies, “If you can do that, I’ll give you a bonus of $50,000”. They have entered a gentleman’s agreement. Tesla trusts Edison on his word.

1885, Tesla is able to treat himself to dine at his favorite and the most expensive restaurant in New York, Delmonico’s.  His favorite waiter knows his dining ritual of bring Tesla a silver tray of twelve serviettes, so that Tesla can calculate a mathematical equation divisible by three, and that is the serviette he chooses. Each time is a different equation. He then polishes his silverware with a cloth napkin, placing them in a specific order. He also organizes his food on his plate by three’s. Because of his uniqueness, the waiters and maître d’ know Tesla.  Tesla succeeds beyond Edison’s expectations, the entire engineering crew and all employees are amazed with the results. There are far less fire-break outs and at least forty-percent efficiency in the entire system, including the dynamos, completing the improvements more than ten percent as promised. Tesla walks into Edison’s office to collect the $50,000 bonus from their gentleman’s agreement upon completion of his success with the direct current system. Edison dismisses Tesla stating he never entered into a firm agreement and that Tesla “does not understand American humor”. Tesla, furious with Edison’s dishonest behavior announces his resignation. Edison offers him a ten dollar a week raises and tells him he will never find a better salary in this town. Tesla says he will take his changes elsewhere and would never work under the employ for a man without any ethical integrity.  Tesla leaves his employ at the Edison Electric Company.

1886,one day Tesla returns to his room at the Gurlach Hotel after a long day of making a trip to Rahway, New Jersey, Irving Street, where he plans to set-up his new company, Tesla Electric Light and Manufacturing . He planned to sell and license his patents and new innovations. He is received by Mr. Earl with two packages. In his room, Tesla wipes off the two large envelopes with a damp soapy towel, while sitting at his hotel room desk, he reads “My Dear Nephew…We have wired three hundred and fifty American dollars waiting for you at the National bank of New York…Please send us a correspondence, as we are all praying for you, considering your unfortunate dealing with Mr. Edison, we all are hoping you have made good progress with your new patent filings and finding a place for your new company…Warmest Regards Uncle Pajo Mandic’”. The next envelope contains a letter from the United States Patent Department granting Tesla approval for the following patents 335,786 Electric Arch Lamp, 334,823 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines, 336,967 and 336,962 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines, Sincerely U.S. Patent Department. Just then the telephone rings. It is two investors, ironically needing help for advancement in their arch lighting company. Tesla agrees to meet them the next evening at Delmonico’s.  Since money has prevented him from dining at his favorite, but most expensive restaurant in all of New York, he is looking forward to an evening of fine food and a glass of the best whiskey.

1886, Delmonicos; evening. The waiter is happy to see Tesla and brings Tesla the silver tray of serviettes to choose, as Mr. Eicks and Mr. McNeil watch with confusion. They offer Tesla the opportunity to develop and improve their arch lighting system for their group of investors in their company and in return finance the Tesla Electric Light and Manufacturing Company in Rahway, New Jersey. This was not the opportunity Tesla had hoped for, since he was interested in his alternating current invention, however, he could only create an outstanding arch lighting system, as his integrity would not allow him anything less. Tesla invented an arc lamp of high efficiency; the carbon electrodes were controlled by electromagnets or solenoids and a clutch mechanism and had an automatic fail switch. The company earned money as a result of Tesla’s system, but most of the capital gained went to the investors. Ultimately, financial investors disagreed with Tesla on his plan to continue developing the company with alternating current, even though Tesla invented a unique arc lamp of beautiful design and efficiency. After completing the work, Tesla was eventually relieved him of his duties, forced out of the company and left with nothing but worthless stock, but yet another terrible experience in his short time in America.

Late 1886 – 1887, Tesla can only find work digging ditches earning $2.00 per day; ironically the ditches were to lay wire for the Edison Electric Company. He cuts holes out of his gloves so that he can work with the shovel, yet keep his cleanliness, not to touch anyone or thing, yet, Tesla was never one to give-up, continuing to work on the brushless alternating current induction motor prototype and patent filings. Although, word began to spread that a genius, who worked for Thomas Edison improved Edison’s DC system and there was an argument causing this genius to leave his employ.  Even though he is somewhat of a loner with his OCD, he continues to grow his confidence in his genius ability to envision future technology in his mind.  He finds comfort in receiving letters from his mother, father and his two uncles Peter and Pajo, as well as financial support. In.  He was broke, but his luck quickly changed, when he was contacted by Mr. A.K. Brown of the Western Union Company, who agreed to invest in Tesla’s idea for an AC motor. He offered Tesla the use of his office to use as a laboratory on 89 Liberty Street.  It is a short distance from The Edison Electric Company on Pearl Street. November and December 1887, Tesla was successfully granted seven U.S. Patents for his alternating current system in the field of polyphase AC motors and power transmission. These comprised a complete system of generators, transformers, transmission lines, motors and lighting. His ideas were so original that they were issued without challenge and would turn out to be the most valuable patents since the telephone. "The motors I build there," said Tesla, "were exactly as I imagined them. I made no attempt to improve the design, but merely reproduced the pictures as they appeared to my vision and the operation was always as I expected." The battle to produce his motor was over. But the struggle to introduce it commercially was only just beginning.

Tesla’s superior AC system directly competed with Edison’s DC system. He was granted over forty patents, all at the age of thirty-one. With the investment money he is able to hire an assistant, Kolman Citzo, two secretaries, Miss Skerritt and Miss Arbus and his legal manager, George Scherriff. He demands everyone dress meticulously and the secretaries are not allowed to wear any jewelry. Their hair is to be worn in a bun with no jeweled combs and they may not wear the same outfit in a one-week period. This caused them to use their entire paycheck to purchase new clothes. The demanding Tesla was not concerned. His staff quickly learned that he could think all of his ideas in three-dimentional form in great detail and would become quick annoyed if asked to write extra instructions on paper. They also learned of his OCD and prepared cleaning tools so he could wash at his convenience and his need to have everything available to him in three’s.

1888 May 16, Tesla speaks at Columbia University before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). He is introduced by Professor Francis Bacon Crocker. He demonstrates his prototype of his two-phase induction motor develops one-half horsepower and requires no brushes or a commutator, whereby reducing frictional and heat losses. By cycling or alternating the current a reduction of resistance is realized creating a method by which the long distance transmission of electricity is now possible. The audience is amazed with his well-thought out vision and ability to articulate every component of his design in detail. He answers every question without hesitation convincing every one of his piers to a standing ovation. He instantly becomes the most well-respected and sought after engineer and inventor on a global scale.

Late 1888, Tesla is flooded with invitations for dinners held in his honor, speaking engagements, and every reporter in the city was calling for an interview. If it was held at Delmonico’s, Tesla would most likely attend. Everyone who worked for him knew not to speak to him when he was writing in his notebook, nor not to disturb him while he was conducting an experiment.    

Citzo, Sherriff and Miss Skerritt quickly learned how to work with Tesla; hence he became his loyal assistant for his entire life.

Later 1888,  One of the most important meetings Tesla took was with the adventurous industrialist,  George Westinghouse, who invented the railroad airbrakes, all produced at his plant in Pittsburg with over two-hundred and fifty employees and plant workers and engineers. He heard about Tesla’s AC system that he demonstrated at the IEEE and knew this was a genius who would change the world forever. He arrived in his personal trolley.   A very gregarious man who would never take no for an answer, came prepared to make a deal with Tesla and nothing would stop him. Westinghouse knew if he partnered with Tesla, he would finally crush the infamous Thomas Edison with his unreliable DC system. Westinghouse had a gut feeling that Tesla was the future and he wanted in. He offered Tesla $60,000, $5,000 immediate cash and 150 shares in the Westinghouse Corporation for the purchase of his seven alternating current patents. Additionally, Tesla required, and Westinghouse agreed to a separate royalty contract of $2.50 per horsepower of electrical capacity sold. A deal was made! Two very different men, from two very different worlds, with mutual respect, would become partners to manufacture the first solid, iron-clad system that would bring light to the world. Tesla always had more ideas in his mind and once he worked out an invention, saw every last detail down to the wiring, noted it, and was then on to the next. Sometimes he had multiple ideas going on, but now he was thinking about wireless communication. So with his new money, he started spending his money on a new laboratory so he could start on his experiments for his new inventions.

1888, Direct current could not easily be converted to higher or lower voltages. This meant that separate electrical lines had to be installed to supply power to appliances that used different voltages, such as lighting and electric motors. This required more wires to lay and maintain, wasting money and introducing unnecessary hazards. A number of deaths in the “Great Blizzard of 1888” were attributed to collapsing overhead power lines in New York City.

Alternating Current could be transmitted over long distances at high voltages, using lower current and thus energy loss and greater transmission efficiency, and then conveniently stepped down to low voltages for use in homes and factories. When Tesla introduced a system for alternating current generator, transformers, motors, wires and lights in November and December 1887, it became clear that AC was the future of electric power distribution, although DC distribution was used in downtown metropolitan areas for decades thereafter.

1888, Tesla is working at the Westinghouse plant in Pittsburg with the staff engineers, particularly, lead engineer, Benjamin Lamme.  Although Tesla is confident of his alternating current system, so well thought-out in his head to every last wire, it will work perfectly, but he must depend on other engineers to carry this out, and this makes him uneasy and somewhat irritated.  He has no time for what he considers stupid questions. Knowing he is superior to them all, he demands they follow his orders without hesitation. He can’t be bothered with formal blueprints, as he has too much detail already worked out in his head and he is driven to run each experiment three times due to his OCD. Tesla changes the system frequency to run at sixty cycles per second. Benjamin Lamme can’t understand this and Tesla hastily writes his instructions for them on pieces of paper, making it difficult because they don’t understand what they are doing. Benjamin tells Westinghouse and them both agree sixty cycles is unheard of and Westinghouse instructs Benjamin to change it back to the standard, one-hundred and thirty-three cycles. Tesla is now very angry, especially that anyone would dare question his instructions, confronts Westinghouse. Just as they are speaking, Benjamin runs in shaken up that sparks are flying everywhere. Tesla proves his point to Westinghouse and that if change is going to happen, then the system must change with it. He makes a point to Westinghouse that he will NEVER be questioned or under minded again. Both Westinghouse and Benjamin apologize, never to question Tesla again.  Tesla’s point is clearly made.

1889, the first long distance transmission of DC electricity in the United States was switched on at Willamette Falls Station in Oregon City, Oregon.

1890, A flood destroyed the Willamette Falls Direct Current power station. This unfortunate event paved the way for the first long distance transmission of AC electricity in the world when Willamette Falls Electric Company installed experimental AC generators from Westinghouse. The Niagara Falls Power Company (NFPC) and its subsidiary Cataract Company formed the International Niagara Commission composed of experts to analyze proposals to harness Niagara Falls to generate electricity. The commission was led by Lord Kelvin and Eleuthe’re Mascart from France, William Unwin from England, Coleman Sellers from the US, and Theodore Turrettini from Switzerland. It was backed by entrepreneurs such as J.P. Morgan, Lord Rothschild, and John Jacob Astor IV. Among nineteen proposals, they could not decide which method would be best overall.  They even briefly considered compressed air as a power transmission medium, but preferred electricity.

1890, the breakthrough with Tesla’s AC patents caused an industrial war to erupt, and Edison was right behind it. Edison launched a propaganda war against alternating current.  A committee was being formed to manage all events at the upcoming Chicago World’s Fair, to be held on May 1, 1893. The biggest event in the world would showcase lighting-up the fair. Would it be DC or AC? The committee would consider bids from all over the world and choose the one they felt could pull it off without a hitch. This fuelled Edison to start a campaign discrediting Tesla’s AC. Edison used his affiliate, Professor Brown who publically electrocuted old dogs, horses and puppies. One in particular was an old circus elephant named Topsy. The other was a convicted Ax murderer named William Kemmler who was the first to be electrocuted at New York's Auburn State Penitentiary.

1891, Tesla is invited back to Columbia University to speak before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (A.I.E.E.). Professor Francis Bacon Crocker introduces Tesla again. This time his advancements in producing alternating current is much further along, as well as his ability to become a great showman. He is dressed in a white suit with tails and top hat, as well as his white gloves. He has Citzo, his loyal assistant to help him demonstrate running hundreds of thousands of high frequency currents serge across his body using two grounding panels, a carbon button lamp and cork grounding shoes. He explains to his fellow engineers the principles and display of the safety of his alternating current. The audience is amazed, giving him a standing ovation. 

1891 July 30, Tesla stand before a group of the United States Citizenship Office reciting his oath to become an American Citizen. It is the proudest day of his life.

1891, J.P. Morgan office, as he sits before Thomas Edison and Charles Coffin, president of the Thomas Houston Electric Company, which has been successful in arch lighting. Morgan informs Edison he has obtained all majority stock proxy from the Rockefeller’s and Mr. Hamilton Twombly, which puts him as the majority stock holder. So, being that he is already majority stock holder in the Thomas Houston Electric Company, his mergers the two companies into one, forming General Electric, known as GE.  Edison is so angry, he is beside himself, but since it is J.P. Morgan, he cannot say a word. Morgan feels that he will have a slam-dunk with winning the bid for the Chicago World’s fair by merging the two companies together.


1891, the powerful J.P. Morgan buys two-hundred million dollars of government bonds in gold, helping pull the country from a major depression. President Grover Cleveland is grateful to Morgan.

Early 1892, Tesla moves into his new laboratory located on 46 and 48 Houston Street. The laboratory now looks like the den of an alchemist. There is a continuous hum from a series of coils powered up ready to be used to create extremely high voltage for experiments. In the middle of the lab is an electrical apparatus with a copper egg rotating in a magnetic field. The egg spins on its major axis standing on its end due to gyroscopic action. The lab is brilliantly lit of purple and red. The reception area is located directly outside the main lab area. Citzo holds a light saber as he is bathed in an eerie blue light that follows him from place to place.

1892, Tesla receives notice from the fair committee that his plan submission to illuminate the Chicago World’s Fair has been approved and accepted. Tesla is now more sought after than ever. The calls to his office are flooded. He is now very particular about who he meets and has no time, becoming very irritated at anyone who bothers him for “nonsense”.  His ego and confidence demands his staff to be extra careful with being prepared. He will light up the fair with no problem and expects everyone around him to step up their game. He accepts an invitation to speak before the International Institute of Electrical Engineers and the International Exposition in Paris. The events take place in September, 1892.  Robert Underwood Johnson and his wife Katharine, both New York socialites and Robert is the editor of Century magazine. Katharine has been following Tesla’s accomplishments, and sends the message that if he does not grant an interview with Robert, she will divorce her husband. Tesla finds this a brilliant way to get his attention and accepts an invitation for an interview at Delmonico’s. Tesla is impressed with Robert’s knowledge of technology. They become life-long friends and Katharine adores Tesla, swooning over him, but Robert doesn’t seem to mind.

Morgan is furious that GE lost the bid to light the fair. He blames Edison and puts pressure on him to make sure they win the bid for the up-coming Niagara Falls. Edison gives him his word. Morgan also convinces a judge to file a court order forbidding Westinghouse to use the patent one-piece Edison lamp and that no one-piece stopper bulb can be designed of any kind. Tesla designed a two-piece stopper bulb, however, some of the bulbs would lose the vacuum and Tesla calculated how many bulbs would fail each night. The team would collect those bulbs each night after the fair, take them by train back to the plant in Pittsburg, there a team would fix the bulbs through the night and put them back on the train early the next morning to install them. This happened every night for three months.

1892 Tesla makes the first class trip to speak at the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London, before some of the most prestigious engineers and scientist in the world, now known as Dr. Tesla; he demonstrated lights that operated without wire connections; tubes so sensitive as to be able to sense an electronic impulse across the Atlantic. The distinguished Lord Rayleigh commented after watching Dr. Tesla’s demonstrations as being a rare talent for discovering fundamental principles, and in the future Dr. Tesla should concentrate on a “single big idea”. Tesla begins having visions in his sleep and awaking suddenly with perspiration covering his body, shaking as he holds his head from sharp pains of the flashing lights. He rocks the bed to help with the pain and senses something is wrong with his mother. While walking down the blvd. to meet a friend and Swami Vivekananda for dinner, he notices a painting in a gallery window, painted by Louise Abbema. It is clouds and with a slight of the eye, you can see angles faces. He sees one of faces is his mother. While having dinner, Sarah Bernhardt walks by and drops her handkerchief so Tesla immediately jumps to pick it up. They lock eyes and it is love at first sight. Tesla asks her about the artist he just saw and Sarah knows her, as they were once lovers. They have dinner the next night and she buys the painting for him. He keeps her handkerchief, the painting of the angles by Louise Abbema and a painting given to him from Swami for the rest of his life. He develops a long love relationship with Sarah. She becomes the only woman in his life who understands how to make love to him, playing sexual jesters with him using numbers of three. She is twelve years older than Tesla. Their time together in Paris is cut short, as Tesla receives a message that his mother has taken very ill. The dreams and nightmares he has been having, have come to reality. He arrives just in time to see his mother before she passes. As he takes a long walk after a terrible thunder storm, there was a lightening flash and a few moments after came a deluge, it comes to him that the two phenomena were closely related as a cause and effect and a little reflection led him to the conclusion that the precipitation was considerable, being like that of a sensitive trigger. If a man could produce electric effects of the required quality, the conditions of existence on earth could be transformed. Arid deserts could be irrigated; this could be the most efficient way of harnessing the sun to the uses of man. The opportunity depends on an ability to develop electric forces in the order of magnitude of those in nature. Imagine unlimited energy from nature. Free for all mankind. This is his “one big single idea”, WIRELESS ENERGY!!

1892 August 21, Tesla, very tired both physically and emotionally, returns to New York. In his room at the Gerlach, he hangs his painting from Swami Vivekanande, the painting from Sarah and sets out her handkerchief. He receives a condolence letter from Katharine Johnson, who now begins to send him numerous letters inviting him to come stay at their brownstone.

1892, now Dr. Tesla is working at the Westinghouse plant in Pittsburg getting the generators ready for the Chicago’s World’s Fair. He receives the news that J.P. Morgan had convinced a judge to serve them with a court order that they can’t use a one-piece stopper bulb of any kind. Tesla comes up with a new design for a two-piece bulb; however, the bulb will not sustain the energy and may break. Tesla calculates what bulbs and how many will pop each night so the workers can collect them, send them by train to Pittsburg, where they will be repaired, and then sent back on the train and installed early the next morning so they will work each night when the fair is lit-up.    

Early 1893, Citzo’s son Julus joins the team at the new laboratory on south 5th avenue. Tesla’s laboratory looks like a Frankenstein-esk with blue eerie lights and Citzo walks around with a light saber. There is a whole section set up for glass blowers. Everything had to be created for the innovative nature of the experiments. Two hanging phosphorescent screen panels and a short table of carbon buttons is set-up along with two other long tables that hold hundreds of different tubes for experiments. While a carbon button that are attached to wires to a gas filled tube that will create a powerful cathode tube. Tesla tells Citzo to turn up the energy output with the power wires wrapped around on one of the panels, suddenly shows an image of Tesla hand. He has just created X-ray. His hand is covered in blisters.

1893. May 1, Chicago World’s Fair, “The Columbian Exposition” President Grover Cleveland flips the switch and hundreds of thousands of incandescent lamps burst into light. Never before has any man successfully achieved what was witnessed on that May night.  Dr. Tesla had several exhibits where he displayed his inventions of neon florescent lights he spelled out into tubes with the names of his favorite poets, scientists and inventors. An A.C. generator was on display, so visitors could see how the fair was lit. He also dressed in a white suit with coattails, top hat and cork soled shoes to ground him. He had the two hanging phosphorescent screen panels that he stood between and carbon button in his pocket and he would shoot one-million bolts of electricity through his body, proving how safe A.C. was to the world, as everyone gasped in amazement. He also revealed the invisible forces of electricity with his display of the “Egg of Columbus’, a metal egg shaped object that spins on its axes with no form of locomotion. The fair displayed the new century of technology and Tesla was in the lead. The 264 foot Farris Wheel took visitors on the ride of their life, and the first zipper was introduced. 27 million visitors from all over the world visited the fair over a three month period, celebrating the 400th year of Columbus’ voyage to America, but also honored the progress of American civilization.

1893, the committee for Niagara Falls meets to review the six bids from all over the world. Headed by British physicist Lord Kelvin and other members are well regarded scientist consists of several of the wealthiest men in America and Europe Edward Dean Adams, J.P. Morgan, John Jacob Astor, Lord Rothschild, W.K. Vanderbilt, and director of the project, William Rankin.

1893, one week later. The committee for the Niagara Falls project makes its decision and announces Westinghouse and Dr. Tesla won the bid to harness and distribute electricity at Niagara Falls. The head of the committee, Lord Kelvin stated it was very clear from the beginning that the Westinghouse Electric Company and Dr. Nikola Tesla’s plan, with its existing prototype of the generator was most feasible. The General Electric Company was granted a licensing agreement for a certain number of Tesla’s patents to build twenty-two miles of transportation line to Buffalo, New York. The two generators will be completed by November 16, 1896 in the Niagara Power Plant to start the harnessing of energy of the fall with a total of ten generators to be installed at the facility. Dr. Tesla said “I will deliver 5,000 horsepower of electricity through each one of my generators”. Tesla’s poly-phase system will be used throughout the project. He was confident all along that his A.C. system would be chosen.  

1893, Tesla files and is granted seventeen wireless communication patents, also patents for System of Electrical Transmission of Power, Electric Generator, Steam Engine, Electrical Transmission of Power, Coil for Electro-Magnetics, Reciprocating Engine.

1894, Tesla files patents for Electrical Conductor, Means for Generating Electric Currents, Incandescent Electric Light, Electric Railway System, Electrical Meter, Electromagnetic Motor.

1894, Robert and Katharine Johnson host a dinner in honor of Tesla at Delmonico’s. The who’s who of the New York social world, Samuel Clemons, Marion Harris, Sarah Bernhardt, the Morgan’s, the Rockefeller’s, the Vanderbilt’s. Joseph Jefferson, the Astor’s, the King and Queen of Budapest, Thomas Fortune Ryan. Some of the guest attend Tesla back to his laboratory to witness his display of shooting millions of volts through his body. Samuel Clemens is one of the few that try it out, at a much lower voltage.

1894, Tesla dines with Sarah Bernhardt at Delmonico’s, which he frequents almost every evening. The waiters know exactly what to bring Tesla to make him very comfortable. Charles Demonico invites Tesla to join him and several of his friends, who are professional billiard players. Tesla is apprehensive at first, but Sarah encourages him until he agrees. After they dine, they join the group in a special room, decorated with a beautiful billiard table. Tesla watches a few games and declines the gentlemen’s offer for a fifteen point lead. He wins the first three games against two of the best players in the world. On his way out, he leans over to Sarah and whispers in her ear, “its simple mathematics”.   

By early 1895, Tesla was ready to transmit a signal 50 miles to West Point, New York... But in that same year, on March 13, 1895 at 33-35 South Fifth Avenue, disaster struck. A building fire consumed Tesla's lab, destroying his work. He was devastated, as he walks through the streets of New York in a daze. His OCD is at an all-time high. He keeps repeating over in three’s “my laboratory burned down, I’ve lost everything”. He falls to the ground and people are kicking him, calling him drunk, as he holds his head from the painful flashes of light and mumbling three times “I’ve lost everything”, and then “my laboratory burned down”.  He makes his way back to the Gerlach Hotel and lies on his bed in a fetal position, rocking back and forth. Never before has Tesla been so DE shelved. Robert and Katharine Johnson look everywhere for him and finally Katharine finds him at the Gerlach Hotel where a crowd of reporters and fans have gathered.  The police are called to break up the crowd and shoot gunfire in the ceiling to show they mean business. An officer escorts Katharine up to see him. George Westinghouse and Edward Adams are concerned of his whereabouts.  Adams goes to see him, but Tesla is incoherent, not making sense from the painful flashes of light and hallucinations. Everyone is concerned about the progress of Niagara, since he is the only one who knows exactly how it will work. Since he only uses notes with instructions, there are no blue prints made that lay out the system, therefore no engineers are able to understand exactly how falls will be harnessed.  

Tesla slowly got himself together and back to work on the generators, although the loss still weighed heavy on his mind. He slowly began to socialize and Katharine Johnson was sending him letters of love and encouragement.  She and Robert took him out to Delmonico’s whenever he was able. Being he was the most sought out bachelor in not only New York, but the world, woman were at his beck and call, and one was the Dodge heiress Flora Dodge. They were seen several times at Delmonico’s, but whenever Sarah Bernhardt came to town, she was first in line.

1896, Westinghouse, Rankin and the crew of workers and engineers are loading the three components for the first generator on a flatbed train. The armature, slater and the cover. A crane is used to load the massive components.  Following the train is Westinghouse in his private trolley along with Benjamin Lamme and Rankine. They arrive as Tesla and Citzo are making last minute notes to assure everything is exactly as planned. A ladder is installed up the side of the almost twenty-foot generator and thirty foot diameter and over the top so Citzo can directly see down the center. Tesla is sitting in a chair taking notes. Everything must match exactly. The aliment cannot afford to be off by one millimeter, or it will not work and could excite an orbit in the bearing set. The crane lifts the three components through one of the bay windows. Westinghouse, Benjamin and Rankin arrive just as the cover is lowered. Although Tesla still harbors the loss over his fire, particularly his X-ray experiments, he is focused and completely confident his alternating current system will work at Niagara Falls and he would only answer to Dr. Tesla. He had worked out in his brain every detail in three-dimentional images.  There was no test run on the system, so he faced skepticism from the board, although Westinghouse had full confidence in him and of course Citzo never questioned Tesla. Tesla dreamed of harnessing power from the falls since he was a child and he knew exactly how it would work, playing over and over in his mind. The pleasure he received was building his creation, not the gratitude of flipping a switch, although the enjoyment of knowing Niagara Falls would work exactly as planned without any test, lifted his ego and was his way show any naysayers of his genius.      

1896, November 16, the day Niagara Falls launched. Thousands of spectators are there, including every reporter from every newspaper.  Rankin whispers to Westinghouse nervous if this will work. Westinghouse appears confident. Lord Kelvin was asked by Tesla to flip the “H” switch.  A speech is given and turbine flood gates open, a jet engine whir sound becomes louder as the two water turbines turn the giant armatures of the generators, then Lord Kelvin pulls the switch and the rotating sound continues to increase louder and louder, causing the river to flow uphill, suddenly, all of the lights setup on and around the buildings and grounds illuminate as a sense of magic fills the cold winter air. The crowd roars, as the Ninth Ward Polish-American honor guard gun spud performs a twenty-one-gun national salute. This, one of the greatest day in history (as important as the first man stepping on the moon) Dr. Nikola Tesla just became the most famous man in the world by owning the undisputed honor of improving mankind’s life forever and making the Niagara Electric Power Generation and Distribution Enterprise possible. The achievement was covered widely in the world press.

1897, One year after the launch of the Niagara Falls Power Station, electricity continued to expand, as power lines were fast growing across the country. Although people could now enjoy light in their house, allowing them the most useful tool, still to this day, sadly two major companies, one for creating the Power Station and the other for distributing the alternating current light to homes, were locked in litigation tying up important cash reserves needed for the expansion of electricity across America. Millionaires fighting Millionaires for the rights and ownership of America’s electrical future. Many state and local government leaders are calling this “the era of the robber barons”, and right in the middle of causing this lock-up was Mr. J.P. Morgan, and then announcing that that he would be willing to purchase Dr. Tesla’s alternating current patents to keep Westinghouse from financial collapse.  A sneaky manipulating tactic Morgan was known for.

1897, the streets of New York was expanding with excitement as

Broadway, Union Square, Time Square, apartments, buildings, Broadway Plays were all lit up with lights at each corner. New York was alive with night life.

1897, Westinghouse request to see Tesla. Tesla is in Westinghouse’s office as Westinghouse explains the wear it has taken on him with the ruthless litigation from GE. The Westinghouse stockholders are also putting pressure on him and the company is on the verge of a bankruptcy and he can’t pay Tesla the $2.50 per horsepower on the royalty contract. Morgan was manipulating the stock market to purchase the alternating current patents. Tesla slides over the contract that is sitting on Westinghouse’s desk, picks it up, and then tears it in pieces. Westinghouse was very happy, Tesla just saved his company. Tesla was grateful that Westinghouse always believed in him, but he was working on his wireless communication patents, amongst other inventions he had in his mind, including that he was financially strained even with his fame and world-wide accomplishments.

1897 January 12, Tesla is invited to speak at Buffalo’s Ellicott Club banquet, before four hundred of the most important bankers, engineers, lawyers, mechanics and other socially important men are in attendance.  At the podium is director John William Leonard, next to him was Albert Nelson Marquis and off to the side George Westinghouse. Dr. Tesla was introduced by John William Leonard to speak about Niagara Falls. On the agenda was for Tesla to speak about how he first envisioned his alternating current system and applying that to a hydroelectric power plant; however Tesla was concerned with his new invention the wireless transmission of energy and begins to speak of this as the method for the next distribution of electricity.  Confused and concerned Mr. Leonard does not understand why Dr. Tesla is wavering from the agenda and does not comprehend his idea, so he whispers to Albert Nelson Marquis and they agree to cut the lecture. Mr. Leonard walks up to the podium and interrupts Tesla, stopping the speech, stating they are out of time and lunch is to be served. Dr. Telsa is lived. As a gentleman, Tesla would never express an argument in front of the prestige’s group of men, but he walks off to the side with Leonard, Marquis, and Westinghouse stating he is never to be interrupted, as I am smarter than you two men and you could add about seven more highly educated men and you still could not hold a candle stick to keep up with me. So gentlemen, you can be assured that I will never return to your small club, where you have displayed your lack of intellect and pure rudeness, because you have no idea what you have just done by illuminating the most important life changing creation that you will soon enjoy.  And this is coming from the man who has lit the world. Tesla and Westinghouse leave the building.   

1898, Early evening, Tesla at age 41 is in his room at the Gerlach, as he sits at his desk and opens the large envelope from the U.S. Patent Department. He pulls out patent numbers 645,576  649,621  613,809 method of and apparatus or controlling mechanism of moving vessels or vehicles has been approved and granted. Patent application numbers 685,955   685,953 685,954  685,956 are pending for approval. Tesla is dressed in his white suit and tails, white gloves, shirt and tie, as he waits in the back room where he is about to demonstrate the most crucial advancement since Niagara. Outside horse and buggies are pulling up as the who’s who of the world dressed in evening attire. The sign above reads: MADISON SQUARE GARDEN’S “Tonight Dr. Nikola Tesla Demonstrates the Most Innovative Invention Ever seen before”. Invitation only, some of the people who exit their buggies are the Vanderbilt’s, Rockefeller’s, Rothschild’s, J.P. Morgan, Samuel Clemons, Sarah Bernardt, Marion Harris, Dignitaries, two United States Navel Officials, and John Hammond, Jr. who helped fund the event. Inside is a large tank of water with a vessel floating a top and a podium with a stick controller? A string quartet plays in the background.  Everyone is buzzing, as not knowing what to expect, but they know it will be great.  The announcers ask the one naval officer directly from the White House to come up and checks to verify that there are no wires of any kind and there is no trickery or sleight of hand. He agrees. Dr. Tesla comes up to the podium with loud applause. Suddenly, once the crowd has quieted down he moves the controller and the vessel moves as he directs the hand control. Everyone is amazed. Tesla invites spectators to come up and operate the controls. Someone yells “there’s a midget inside”! Citzo comes up to the side of the take and opens the top. Then they yell “what is the square root of twenty-one”! Tesla blinks the lights three times. Samuel Clemons asks to come up. Dr. Tesla again displays another amazing invention, causing worldwide attention.

1898, next morning Tesla meets for an interview with a reporter from the New York Times to discuss his wireless communications. One of the few times, Tesla drew a complete blueprint of a navel defense system that could be operated robotically, setting off torpedoes to its opponent and another set would come in and lock itself in position, ready for the next release. The reporter and Tesla debated over his invention causing warfare, where Tesla felt it to be a deterrent. There is no reason for anyone to fear technology. It is an evolution of progress that is inevitable, whether it happens now or in the future of that we cannot imagine, and unavoidable now after the success of Niagara. The basic idea is really quite simple and based on the study of human reactions to certain stimuli, following the commands of human wishes. Technology will only improve our lives to endless degrees. Wireless transmission can be used for limitless applications and will carry on for generations to come. So long as men meet in battle, there will be bloodshed. Bloodshed, I’m afraid is man’s barbarous passion, but it is not what God meant for us all. To break this fierce spirit a radical departure must be introduced. Something that never existed in warfare, a principle technology which will forcibly turn the battle into a mere spectacle, a play, a contest without loss of blood or life with machines fighting machines. The reporter asks if a machine could operate the components and mechanisms, without the loss of life or a drop of blood. This was Tesla’s blind belief that systems he created like this would be in controlled by those of responsible and moral hands, using the machines as a deterrent. Tesla was granted seventeen wireless communication patents by the United States Patent Office; however the United States Military did not know how to apply Tesla’s designs in military use.

1898, Late Tesla’s 46 Houston street laboratory Citzo secures a mounting plate on a steel beam exactly to Tesla’s instructions. Tesla prepares for his experiment, as he takes his electromechanical steam driven oscillator (seven inches long, weighing five pounds) and attaches it to the mounting plate. He then puts his ear against the oscillator and searches for the resonance of the steel beam that should be uniform to the entire building. He uses a tuning fork to set the frequency range of the gage.  Suddenly, everything starts shaking. Fruit flying off of the carts, buildings sway and bricks start of break loose. Tesla has created an earthquake like experience all within a five block radius. The police are flooded with telephone calls as their chairs are rolling all around the office. Tesla can’t stop the frequency so he grabs a sledge hammer sitting in the corner or his laboratory and breaks the oscillator just as the policemen break open the door. Tesla says to the policemen, very calmly, “Too bad gentlemen, you’ve just missed a very interesting experiment”.

1899, Tesla is informed by George Sheriff that he has secured land in Colorado where the altitude air is thinner so he can build his “Tesla Coil” allowing electricity to full capacity. He will receive free electricity from the El Paso Electric Company and in return he must give a speech to the community of Pikes Peak when he arrive and when de departs.

1899,Tesla is informed that Gugiano Marconi has been applying with the U.S. patent department the very same seventeen wireless communication patents that have already been granted to Tesla. He is continuously turned down and has even received numerous letters to stop applying, as they are identical to Dr. Tesla patent which were granted in 1893. Tesla is very angry that a Marconi is attempting to take credit for another man’s work, however he is confident the legal system will not allow it, and commented  “Marconi is a donkey and is using all of my wireless patents calling them derivative works of his own design. Let the future tell the truth, and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishment. The present is theirs and the future which I have really worked is mine”. Sheriff informs Tesla not to be surprised if he continues to use all unethical and illegal means possible to steal the achievement as him being the one who invented wireless communication, including radio. To add to his anger, he found out that Marconi requested a meeting with J.P. Morgan.

1899, March 27, Guglielmo Marconi sends a wireless signal across the English Channel, using the seventeen wireless communication patents owned by Tesla. Tesla is outraged!

1899, May Tesla and Citzo arrive at Pikes Peak Alta Vista Hotel. A beautiful mountain lodge with amazing country views. As he passes his way to the check-in desk, he notices a beautiful young woman playing classical Mozart, Tesla’s favorite. His arrival has been the talk of the town. Everyone has been informed of his request for a suit divisible by three, including sets of towels, hangers, etc., including the tray of serviettes wrapped in fine cloth napkins.  Tesla requests note paper and invites the beautiful lady, Marguerite Merington to join him for dinner. This is the start of a love affair during his stay in Colorado. His driver, Chuck Smart will pick up him and Citzo at 5:30 each morning, unless they stay at the laboratory working through the night. When they arrive the next morning, the property is fenced off, with a sign that reads “KEEP OUT! GREAT DANGER!” They all walk to the laboratory, which has been secured by cables to keep the building grounded for the electrical experiments. The workers are on the roof, installing the retractable roof, opened by the use of a crank, so the electricity Tesla plans to create can serge out of the laboratory and into the night sky. As they enter the building, there is a sign on the door that reads “ABANDON HOPE ALL YE WHO ENTER HERE” written in Italian. As they enter inside the laboratory’ even Citzo who has seen it all, is shocked. The massive Tesla Coil fills up most of the space, which are actually two coils. The outer coil is nearly fifty feet in diameter and twenty-five high. The second or inner coil is five feet in diameter and thirty high attached to one hundred foot antenna shaft with a two foot diameter copper ball the top. The largest coil ever built to-date, and Tesla is so excited to see what he has envisioned come to life. They will conduct high frequency experiments, the coil and the magnifying transformer will produce 1,100 amperes and millions of volts of electricity into the cool Colorado night sky. Flocks of doves startle everyone as they fly from a rafter. Tesla is caught in a moment of intrigue with birds, as he figures out in his mind mathematical reasoning why they have the ability to catch flight. Tesla circles the coil three times, before he demonstrates opening the roof, using the crank thirty-seven times. The crew of seven were all to arrive the next day, including Citzo’s son, Julius.

1899, August, Tesla consumed with his work, manages to find time to develop a relationship with Margarete. She is completely infatuated with Tesla, never meeting anyone as handsome, sophisticated and brilliant as he. They become the talk of the town. With Tesla’s work schedule, she always makes herself available whenever he calls. She is very impressionable; interested in every word Tesla has to say. She is the only one in the town who has been formally educated, leaving the town to graduate from college and then returning, so she feels lucky to meet Tesla, as no other men are formally educated. Even though Tesla knows she is falling in love with him, he does not feel the same and does not concern himself with any consequences. He is selfish with the importance of his work always taking first priority, knowing he will never marry, as it would always be a distraction. Sarah always knew that, making it very easy for him to be with her.  Margarete had trouble understanding Tesla’s commitment and dealing with his OCD. Sarah knew how to incorporate his obsession with the number three, using it in ways to make him feel comfortable and at ease, which rarely never happened.

1899, December late evening, everyone is dressed in their best suits. This would be the night of the biggest experiment ever. Each of the crew has gone through their check list three times. Everything is planned and the equipment is checked to the smallest detail. The roof has been retracted. The firing will be three, one second events. When the coil temperature gage hits 2,000 degrees it must be shut down. Citzo closes the first switch. The coil is humming loader and loader. The secondary coil begins to spark and crack followed by a never before seen strange eerie blue corona that forms in the air around the coil. Citzo closes the main coil firing switch, and then a huge arc of electricity snakes up and down the center coil, building millions of volts of energy, oscillating faster and faster as the current builds. The noise is so load; it is as if a jet engine was in the room. Electricity, now in its most lethal state, explodes in a thunderous bang, discharging hundreds of millions of volts up the antenna mast into the dark night sky. Suddenly, a second thundering crack of energy creates a shock-wave so powerful that the building pulls at its grounding cables that snap in two, as the building shakes from its foundation. Highly charged liquid plasma creates a blue aura encompassing the laboratory that can be seen by the residents of silver springs 22 miles away. A bolt of lightning strikes out into the night sky one-hundred and thirty feet in the air. The entire town is blacked-out, and electricity is fed back to the El Paso Electric Plant, shutting down all of its generators.  The station manager is outraged! Tesla is not concerned by the least, that he just blacked-out the entire town. He is thrilled that he just created a lightning bolt shoot further than he expected. He tells the station manager that he will fix the generation within twenty-for hours. The manager is upset that it would be impossible and they would be down for at least two week, if I’m lucky. Tesla very calmly and arrogant tells the manager “Sir, I designed those generators you are using, I know exactly what I am doing, and when I say I will have them and I will have them fixed and running within the next twenty-four hours, please do not question my ability”, he then walks away.

1900, January, Tesla has over-extended himself with his facilities and experiments in Colorado, spending $100,000. It is time for him to return back to New York.  George Sheriff send word, that J.P. Morgan has expressed interest in investing in his wireless communication, particularly radio broadcasting. He has secured land in Wardencliffe, Long Island Shore. John Jacob Astor was Tesla’s wealthiest and most generous investor. He invested $100,000 in 1899 for Tesla to, as he understood it, further develop and produce a new lighting system. Tesla instead, used the money to fund his Colorado Springs experiments. Mr. Astor was understandably unhappy with Tesla’s deception and avoided him for several years

1900, January, day. Tesla stands at a podium in an area on the grounds of the Alta Vista Hotel. Nearly the entire town of Pikes Peak of Colorado residents attended, all in anticipation to hear the man speak who has stirred up fear and interest over their quiet town the past year. Tesla gave an outstanding speech explaining how the experiments he conducts will advance the future and safety of this nation for their children and their children. He received a standing ovation causing the town to feel proud that through all of their fears their small town would go down in history.  

Margarette Merington sits down with Tesla she has been offered a position with New York Philharmonic. She was hoping that she and Tesla might start a family together. Tesla explains that he can never marry. He was born with a god given gift and he must use it to better the lives of mankind. It just takes up too much time, not allowing him to be a good husband and father. Margarette becomes so angry, feeling the entire town now sees her as “used goods”. She slaps Tesla across the face and runs away. This has never happened to Tesla before, leaving him shocked.

1900, January 4, The New York Times reported, Alexander Stepanovich Popov stated to the Congress of Russian Electrical Engineers; the emission and reception of signals by Marconi by means of electric oscillations was nothing new. The famous American engineer Dr. Nikola Tesla completed the same experiments, seven years earlier, in 1893 and was awarded U.S. Patents for his work.

1900, Late Tesla returns to New York. Tesla is taken a-back at the changes since Niagara Falls launched and moreover, the last year and a half while in Colorado.  Electric street cars and excavation was under way for a new underground electric rail system. The city was is lit and full of night life.  The American Marconi Company, called RCA was form. The company is backed by J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie and Thomas Edison, Edison, Pupin and Marconi are all consulting engineers in the company.  Tesla, very angry, calls George Sheriff to consult with an attorney to protect Marconi the use of his wireless communication patents.

Tesla checks into the beautiful Waldorf Astoria, suite 3332. Everything prepared to his specifications.  He is received with an invitation to a dinner party hosted by J.P. Morgan.

Tesla then sees a New York Times newspaper sitting on the table in his suite. He reads; J.P. Morgan just purchased Carnegie Steel in the amount of four-hundred and eighty-million dollars. Morgan has now become the wealthiest and most powerful man in the world. Tesla knows this could have been him, had he not torn up the royalty contract with Westinghouse, however, he felt then and still feels he made the right decision; he had no time to waste, as all his concentration was devoted to wireless communication.

He continues to reads the newspaper, quoting Morgan; “I believe that no other company or man on earth can realize and develop a complete system for wireless communications other than Nikola Tesla. His work in developing a successful system for the creation and distribution of electricity at Niagara is world known and he will follow such a feat with wireless communications.”  Tesla is suspicious with the accolades he is given by Morgan and his investment in Marconi. Is Morgan aligning him with both sides of the fence?

Tesla attends the dinner party given by Morgan. At the party he is introduced to Anne Morgan, the daughter of J.P., and they become friends.

1900, Tesla meets with Morgan in his office. He insists that Tesla call him commodore, as do all of his friends. First, Morgan gives him notice he is watching him with his daughter. Morgan then offers Tesla a business proposition of one-hundred and fifty thousand dollars to the development of wireless communication concentrating only on radio. With the purchase of Wardencliffe, Tesla has already envisioned building a full global wireless communication tower, and $150,000 would not cover the cost of that, but it would change the world forever.  Tesla doesn’t reveal his plans to commodore, and commodore only focused on radio, reminds Tesla the value of his offer would match that of what 100 men make in a year. After Tesla comes back with an offer of $500,000, and reminds Morgan the amount of money it took for the Niagara Power Plant, Morgan will not budge, sticking to his original offer. Tesla takes the deal, believing he can still pull off the deal and build what he has envisioned.

1900, February, Tesla writes in his notebook; when my global wireless system is perfected, man shall be able to communicate instantly irrespective of distance, weather or location. People will view images of their families and other information broadcast and received from thousands of points on earth. We shall see and hear one another as perfectly as though we were face to face.

1901, a large construction crew of workers at the WardenclyffeTower are unloading tons of steel, copper casing, hundreds of iron pipes and special fir timbers, just as Tesla arrives from the New York train to Shoreham Station. Tesla arrives with a Serbian man servant who secures the mobile steps for him to step of the train, the servant has a basket of he carries as he walks behind Tesla. Stanford White; the architect who designed Niagara Falls has agreed to design Wardenclyffe.

1902, December 12, Gugliemo Marconi has signaled the letter “S” across the Atlantic from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland. Tesla’s anger continues building, as he puts pressure on George Sheriff to secure legal help.

1902, Tesla struggles with getting investment money from Morgan. He has only paid a fraction of the agreed amount. The Waldorf Astoria hosts a distinguished gentlemen’s club, enjoying good Havana cigars and fine whiskey. There, Colonel Astor mingles with Tesla about Wardenclyffe, as he predicts the future of extraordinary outcomes based on electric power and Niagara Falls will be small in scale to Wardenclyffe, as well as his struggles with J.P. Morgan. Astor is fascinated with Tesla’s technological findings and what Wardenclyffe will do for mankind. He also offers Tesla advice with Morgan’s business practices and agrees to invest and help find investors.

1903, July, J.P. Morgan has not given Tesla the full amount of the agreed investment money for Wardenclyffe, but instead has sent him increments, stressing Tesla and causing him to be delinquent in paying his workers, even though he has raised his own investment money, Tesla has still managed to almost complete the tower.  Morgan is still very angry that he has not yet seen any results. He sends two men from his legal firm to go there and report their findings. The two young lawyers happen to visit on of the two occasions Tesla had fired-up the tower. The two men leave frightened to death from the boom of thunder, the sphere of a blue eerie light that glowed for miles and the discharge of lightening that melted the step-down from their car. They get out as fast as they can, reporting back to Morgan.

1904, September 12, Tesla sitting at his desk in his suite, reads a letter. Dear Mr. Tesla, we regret to inform you that the following wireless communication patents have been revoked due to our findings of prior art by Guglielmo Marconi. Tesla is shocked and angry, although George Sheriff and Colonel Astor gave him full warning of J.P. Morgan’s business practices and it couldn’t be clearer that Morgan is definitely behind this. He immediately runs to the bathroom washing his hands three times and drying them on a separate towel after each wash. He puts his jacket on and then hangs it up three times. He takes the letter and throws it in the trash, picks it up and repeats this three more times, and does several other tasks like this before he picks up the telephone to call Sheriff, requesting a meeting with his team of lawyers. Most of them pro-bono because of who he is and the great contribution he provided to the world, but moreover, this is a great travesty of justice. George Sheriff, devoting all of his time to manage all communication and documents for the group.

Tesla is prepared to do whatever it takes to gain back his patents that were so blatantly robbed from him, and his team is right behind him for the good of American justice. If this could happen to Tesla, it could happen to them.

1905, for the first time, Tesla is worried about money and he can’t pay the good men who have worked so hard to build his ultimate dream tower, which will change the world forever well beyond Niagara. Additionally he is getting behind on his rent at the Waldorf Astoria. He believed that if Morgan would have paid the full agreed $150,000 (he barely paid half) and the investment money from Colonel Astor and investment partners, Wardenclyffe would have changed the lives for all mankind and brought full wireless communication to the world, using all of his wireless communication patents, freeing him from this one-sided legal battle, with the power of Morgan controlling all of the judges in New York. Tesla naïvely didn’t have a full understanding of how powerful Morgan was, since his legal team was not gaining any rulings in their favor. This was truly the downfall of his career, hence causing his OCD to flare and making it hard for him to continue. His group of loyal friends was all there by his side for encouragement and help with finances, although it could not compare to the fight against the wealthiest man in the world. Becoming an American citizen was his proudest accomplishment and still believed in the principles of a “Free Country”, yet he was distressed over the many unethical practices that came his way. His emotions were getting to him, making his attitude irritable and curt with those around him. Although he knew what he was up against, he hoped that there was at least one honest judge out there that could not be bought.

1906, Tesla files lawsuit complaint against Marconi America “RCA”.

1907, May 6, an article entitled “Tesla Tidal Wave to Make War Impossible” from “English Mechanical and World of Science, “Tesla states that his magnifying transmitter has obtained rates of 25 million horsepower. May, 27th, it had been just over ten years since Tesla lectured on X-rays before the New York Academy of Sciences when they elected him as an active member. Needing alternate funding for the Wardenclyffe project, Tesla opens an office at 165 Broadway, which is now 1 Liberty Plaza and begins work on other inventions such as propulsion system and the vertical take-off and landing.25 Million H.P. Magnifier

1908, John Jacob Astor and Tesla reconcile from earlier investment dispute and worked together on aircraft and propulsion systems.   

1909, Tesla reads The New York Times “Marconi has been nominated to receive a Nobel Prize for Physics”.  He also reads another column that Thomas Edison and Dr. Nikola Tesla are potential laureates to share the Nobel Prize in the upcoming year of 1915 for their contribution in electricity. Furious, Tesla would never agree to share an honor of distinction with someone so dishonest. Tesla tosses the paper in the trash can and then washes his hands three times.

1910, Tesla gains initial success with “Turbines”’ He relocates his office to the prestigious to a 48 story metropolitan tower, that is the tallest building at that time. Sadly, Samuel Clemens dies of a heart attack in Redding, Connecticut; one day after Haley’s Comet’s closest approach to earth.

1911, Tesla’s talks about his new Monarch of Machines, Gas Turbines and Flying machines that will neither wings or propellers.

1912, April 14, Tesla was embroiled in other problems at the time, but when Marconi was actually awarded the Nobel Prize in 1911, Tesla was furious.  Unfortunately, friend and investor to Tesla, John Jacob Astor and his wife were aboard the “Titanic”, which began to sink after colliding with an iceberg. Mr. Astor was able to help his wife into a lifeboat, but was unable to join her. His body was found a few days later and is buried in Trinity Church Cemetery in New York.

George Westinghouse dies in New York City at the age of 67. As a Civil War Veteran, he was buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery, along with his wife Marguerite, who survived him by three months. Later to be called “The Perfect Partnership” there is little doubt about the impact Westinghouse and Tesla had upon the world.

Tesla moved his office from Metropolitan Tower to the Woolworth Building, then the world’s tallest building, but fell behind in rent after only a few months and was forced to leave.

1913, Tesla receives patents for his turbine, which is a bladeless centripetal flow. It is referred to as a bladeless turbine because it uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine. The Tesla turbine is also known as the boundary layer turbine, cohesion-type turbine, and Prandtl layer (after Ludwig Prandtl). Bioengineering researchers have referred to it as a multiple disk centrifugal pump. One of Tesla’s desires for implementation of this turbine was for geothermal power

1914, March 2, George Westinghouse dies in New York City at the age of 67. As a Civil War veteran, he was buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery, alongside his wife Marguerite, who survived him by three months. Tesla and Westinghouse were called “The Perfect Partnership” who together had the greatest impact upon the world. Tesla moves his office from the Metropolitan Tower to the Woolworth Building, then, the tallest building in the world. Unfortunately, his continued bad money management caused him to fall behind in rent for a few months and was forced to leave. Unlike the Gurlach Hotel, there was no lenience for rent extensions, no matter who you were, and Tesla, although losing his popularity, was still recognized most everywhere he went.  

1915, He sued the American Marconi Company (RCA) for infringement in. Litigation on a case against a major corporation caused financial hardship and difficulties against the power behind Marconi and his prime investor, J.P. Morgan. His lawsuit complaint is ongoing, with continued struggles of constant blatant unlawful rulings against Tesla. His team of lawyers was tiring of the unjust battle and even though they know the legal system is not being upheld, several can’t continue.

1915, Through all of the pressures concerning money, the loss of his patents and the law suit, Tesla continues to work, filing a new patent of the principles regarding frequency, range, azimuth and power levels for the first radar units.

Suffice to say that the destructive invention will go through space with a speed of 300 miles a second, and man less airship without propelling engine or wings, sent by electricity to any desired point on the globe on its errand of destruction, if destruction its manipulator wishes to effect.

Ten miles or a thousand miles, it will be all the same to the machine, the inventor says. Straight to the point, on land or on sea, it will be able to go with precision, delivering a blow that will paralyze or kill, as is desired. A man in a tower on Long Island could shield New York against ships or army by working a lever, if the inventor's anticipations become realizations.
"It is not the time," said Dr. Tesla yesterday, "to go into the details of this thing. It is founded on a principle that means great things in peace; it can be used for great things in war. But I repeat, this is no time to talk of such things.""It is perfectly practicable to transmit electrical energy without wires and produce destructive effects at a distance. I have already constructed a wireless transmitter which makes this possible, and have described it in my technical publications, among which I may refer to my patent 1,119,732 [*] recently granted. With transmitters of this kind we are enabled to project electrical energy in any amount to any distance and apply it for innumerable purposes, both in peace and war. Through the universal adoption of this system, ideal conditions for the maintenance of law and order will be realized, for then the energy necessary to the enforcement of right and justice will be normally productive, yet potential, and in any moment available, for attack and defense. The power transmitted need not be necessarily destructive, for, if existence is made to depend upon it, its withdrawal or supply will bring about the same results as those now accomplished by force of arms.

"But when unavoidable, the same agent may be used to destroy property and life. The art is already so far developed that great destructive effects can be produced at any point on the globe, determined beforehand and with great accuracy. In view of this I have not thought it hazardous to predict a few years ago that the wars of the future will not be waged with explosives but with electrical means."

Dr. Tesla then said that it would be possible with his wireless mechanism to direct an ordinary aero plane, man less, to any point over a ship or an army, and to discharge explosives of great strength from the base of operations.

Asked to express an opinion upon the announcement last Sunday of Charles H. Harris, and electrical engineer of Los Angeles, that he would be able to surround this country with an electrical wall of fire in time of war, Dr. Tesla gave it as his opinion that Mr. Harris was not practical.
"It is hard to stamp as impossible such results as those described in the press dispatches to which you refer. Granted, however, that the project is feasible, it would take more than all the motive power obtainable in the United States to throw a wall of fire around the country. In fact, even the passage of small currents at considerable distances through air consumes a great deal of energy on account of the immense pressure required. So, for instance, in lightening discharges, energy may be delivered at the rated of billions of horsepower, though the currents are of smaller volume than those developed by electrical generators in our power houses."

1915, November 6, Nikola Tesla, and Thomas Edison never shared the recipient of the Nobel Physics Prize, based upon a dispatch from London, both stating to reporters they had received no notification of the award. The committee did not deny that Tesla and Edison were first choices, but never made it public. Speculation is Tesla refused to share an award with Edison.  The award went to Professor William Bragg and the University of Leeds, England. He left the Woolworth Building; he relocated his office to 8W 40th street, which was directly across the street from Bryant Park and beloved pigeons.

In order to keep himself afloat, Tesla had given two mortgages on Wardenclyffe to George C. Bolt proprietor of the Waldorf Astoria, to secure payment of hotel bills amounting to almost $19,000. Tesla requested that they not be recorded, fearing that all of his projects would be destroyed if the matter became public. He was unable to make any payments at all forcing him to sign the deed over to the Waldorf-Astoria, Inc., through a silent intermediary.

Tesla agrees to a sitting for his self-portrait, even though he felt it to be “superstitious or unlucky”, however, the Serbian artist Princess Vilma-Lwoff-Parlaghy agree to let Tesla set up the lighting. She painted him at her studio at 109 East Thirty-Ninth Street, where he sat near a corner window and placed a series of blue lights above his head on the north side that illuminated him. This became the famous “Blue Portrait”.  The portrait was unveiled on Tesla’s birthday, July 10, 1931.

1917, May, originally rejecting the offer of the AIEE’S highest award, Tesla reconsiders and accepts, after being encouraged by Bernard A. Bebrend. During the introduction, Tesla disappears and is later found at the library feeding his beloved pigeons. He is persuaded to return and gives his acceptance speech. 

1917, July 4, the United States Marines are tearing down the Wardenclyffe Tower using demolition. The government is afraid that the tower could be used to communicate with enemy submarines in our coastal waters, and used by German Spies. Sheriff manages to move all of Tesla’s materials before the destruction. Part of the deed was paid to pay off his bill from the Walforf Astoria. Most of it is moved to the New Yorker Hotel, Tesla’s new home, room 3327. He has taken two rooms next to each other. One for all of his notes and small experiments and the other are his sleeping quarters. Sheriff found a buyer for the land, but part of the land deed was paid to the Waldorf Astoria for Tesla’s accumulative bill he owed.

1917, July, Tesla moves to Chicago.

1917, December 13, the announcement of Tesla to be awarded the “Edison Medal”, established on February 11, 1904; the seventh Edison Medal ever given. The subject matter of the award for Tesla was for “meritorious achievements in his early original work in polyphase and high-frequency electric currents.” will be presented to Mr. Tesla at the annual meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in the auditorium of the Engineering Societies Building, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York, on Friday evening, May 18, 1917, at 8.30 p. m. Ladies are invited to attend this meeting.

1918, upon returning from Chicago, Tesla moves into the Hotel St. Regis, one of New York’s most exclusive hotels. Tesla stayed in room number 1607.

1919, “Electrical Experimenter” magazine began a series of articles entitled “My Inventions” by Tesla. An illustration of Tesla was also featured on the initial cover of the issue with the article. To persuade the great Tesla to write his own autobiography was no small feat, and Editor Hugo Gernsback considered it one of his greatest journalistic achievements. The articles were later converted into the book with the same title.

1920, Tesla finds peace through all of his financial and legal struggles by feeding the pigeons, who have become his loyal friends. Every day he sits on the bench across from the New York Library, as they flock around him, all seeming to have a connection with him. He becomes caretaker taking the sick or injured ones back to his room at the New Yorker, where he has made little nests identical to nature. He hand feeds them and makes small splits to heal the ones who have broken wings. Some days he is joined by his dear friend Robert Johnson. Over the years Robert has fallen on tough times and they cover each other when one of them has cash flow shortage by writing checks back and forth.

1921 to 1925, Tesla works with the Budd Company and develops new types of automobile engines for them.

1922, One of Tesla’s favorite pigeon’s dies.  Although he cared for many, he had some that he was particularly fond of.  One night the bird flew into Tesla’s room at the Hotel St. Regis and her eyes lit up and then she died. He knew at that moment her light was telling him his life’s work was over.

1923, of course Tesla picked the most expensive hotel in the city to reside, the St. Regis.  Now the $15. Per day was an exorbitant amount for the time, of which he could no longer pay. He hadn’t paid anything over the last seven months, he ran up a balance of $3,000., but, always seeking a lavish residence, he checked into the luxurious Hotel Marguery on the west side of Park Avenue, between 47th and48th. March 26, 1923, Sarah Berhardt dies at the age of 79.Tesla

1925, For unknown reasons, Tesla rents a room at the Hotel Pennsylvania, making it his primary residence, while continuing to rent the room at the Hotel Marguery. He confided in Kenneth Swezey, telling him that the room at Hotel Marguery was for meeting “special” friends and acquaintances. Tesla’s long-life friend and most female admire, Katharine Johnson died. Robert and Katharine were his closest friends. Katharine always wooed over Tesla, as they were very close, sending each other flirtatious letters and Robert never seemed to mind. Tesla said their relationship was platonic. On her death bed, she made Robert promise to keep in close touch with Tesla, always watching out for him. For other unknown reasons, Tesla relocates his office from 8 West and 40th Street to 350 Madison Avenue. Tesla 

1926, June b5, Tesla receives a diploma of honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Engineering, University of Belgrade.

1926, June 29, Tesla received a diploma of honorary doctorate from the University of Zagreb.

1926, Sava N. Kosanovic was the son of Marica Kosanovic’, Tesla’s younger sister. Sova was also a diplomat carrying the title of Ambassador of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. During his visit to New York City, he met Tesla for the first time. Sova would later play an important role in Tesla’s life.

J.P. Morgan as the major shareholder in General Electric formed a privately held corporation to acquire the assets of the Marconi American Wireless Radio Company from British Marconi. The organization will be known by its acronym “RCA”.

1928, Tesla now seventy-two is much thinner, as the years of his court room battles against the most powerful man in the world have taken their toll on him. His dark brown hair has turned grey. He is still perfectly groomed in his fine tailored suit. The always devoted and loyal Citzo, still working beside his genius boss is now in his late fifties and he as well, is greying hair, in a fine suit. George Sheriff is in his late sixties with full grey hair in his nice business suit. Maintaining his office on 350 Madison Avenue becomes too much to keep, so he closes it down. The team has not wavered from their life-long purpose in life; change the world for the better of mankind. Tesla is granted from the U.S. Patent Department two crucial patents, which can be used for military purposes and perhaps sell them to the military; Method of Aerial Transportation #1,655,113 and Apparatus for Aerial Transportation #1,655,114.

1929, September 22, Tesla speaks on a radio show, and tells of new radio theories, says the New York Herald Tribune.

1930, Tesla is asked to leave the Hotel Pennsylvania after residents complained about the droppings from his “flying rats” and because he was $2,000.00 behind in his rent. Tesla’s friend and admirer, B.A. Bebrend, helped with the debt and Tesla relocates to the Hotel Governor Clinton. In December 1931, Tesla gives a radio interview about “Our Future Motive Power” in Everyday Science and Mechanics.   

1931, July 10, Tesla’s 75th birthday as passes a news stand he stops to see he is on the cover of “Time Magazine” from a recent interview he has just given to their reporter. They used the “Blue Painting” portrait by Princess Lwoff-Parlaghy to honor him. The caption reads “Dr. Nikola Tesla has created the twentieth century”. This makes him very happy having been overlooked for awards that rightfully belonged to him, wireless communication patents and X-ray. Tesla receives congratulations from 70 pioneers in science and engineering, including Albert Einstein. Tesla took his nephew, Peter Savo of to Buffalo New York and showed him a modified Pierce-Arrow automobile. 

1932, Tesla talks about his patent (ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, Nikola Tesla, USA Patent No. 787,412. Application May 16, 1900, patented April 18, 1905.) “The most essential requirement is, however, that irrespective of frequency the wave or wave-train should continue for a certain interval of time, which I have estimated to be not less than one-twelfth or probably 0.08484 of a second and which is taken in passing to and returning from the region diametrically opposite the pole over the earth’s surface with a mean velocity of about four hundred and seventy-one thousand two hundred and forty kilometers per second.”

1932, World famous scientist Nikola Tesla, the father of the rotary magnetic field, alternating current, tele-automation and wireless energy transfer stated on October 16th, 1927.; in "WORLD SYSTEM OF WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY"

1934, a settlement was reached with the Westinghouse Corporation that provided Tesla with a consulting rate of $125.00 per month, along with the agreement to pay his monthly rent and expenses. Upon signing the agreement, Tesla promptly moved to the New Yorker Hotel room number 3327, on January 2, 1934, where he lived rent free for the rest of his life. Also, the debt owed to Hotel Governor Clinton was never paid.

1934, March, Tesla writes an article called “Possibilities of Electro-Static Generators” is published in “Scientific American” which features “Colossus”, a two-million volt Van de Graff generator which is now on display at the Boston Museum of Science.

1934, June, The City of Philadelphia awards Tesla with the John Scott Medal for the invention of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor.

1934, November 29, Tesla develops a working charged particle beam weapon intended for use in national defense. The term teleforce refers to Tesla’s macroscopic charged particle beam projector.  The device was based upon a large Van de Graff generator of unique design and a special type of open-ended vacuum tube. It comprised a system for the acceleration of minute tungsten or mercury particles to a velocity of about 48 times the speed of sound. The projectiles were propelled out of the tube by electrostatic repulsion.

1934, November 29, Tesla writes to J.P. Morgan;

“I have made recent discoveries of inestimable value... The flying machine has completely demoralized the world so much that in some cities, as London and Paris, people are in mortal fear from aerial bombing. The new means I have perfected afford absolute protection against this and other forms of attack. ... These new discoveries, which I have carried out experimentally on a limited scale, have created a profound impression. One of the most pressing problems seems to be the protection of London and I am writing to some influential friends in England hoping that my plan will be adopted without delay. The Russians are very anxious to render their borders safe against Japanese invasion and I have made them a proposal which is being seriously considered. Sincerely, Nikola Tesla”.

1935, July 11, the day after Tesla’s 79th birthday, Tesla promises to transmit force. He had discovered the so-called cosmic ray in 1896, at least five years before any other scientist took it up and twenty years before it became popular among scientists, and he is now convinced that many of the cosmic particles travel fifty times faster than light, some of them 500 times faster. 15 out of 16 of Marconi's Patent claims on the radio are invalidated by the Court of Claims and Tesla is acknowledged to have been prior inventor on these portions of Marconi's patent. But legal red tape drags on and is eventually reviewed by the US Supreme Court. 

1936, July 10, on Tesla’s 80th birthday, he issued a 10-page statement that debated current theories on cosmic rays.

1937, July 10, exactly one year later, on his birthday, the ambassador from Yugoslavia awarded him the Grand Cordon of the White Eagle, that country’s highest honor.

1937, Mid While sitting on his bench, Tesla is approached by two men dressed in dark business suits asking him about a “Death Ray” device he may building. They ask him if he has a black box in his room and request to see it. Tesla, having an attitude refuses saying he has not invented such a device and unless they have papers from the U.S. Government they are not welcomed.  

1937, Late Tesla is now eighty-four years old; In his diminishing years, Tesla became increasingly confused. As he leaves to go home that day, he is struck by a taxi, and his health never improved. He suffered heart and lung problems but generally refused medical attention. Tesla’s phobia of germs grew, and he did not want anyone to get within a few feet of him.

1938, very frail, weighing less than one-hundred pounds. He is joined by Robert Johnson, who is also in his early eighties sitting on his bench across from the library feeding the pigeons. Tesla is no longer recognized by anyone; this being one of his few last trips outside. Due to his failing health, he stays in bed for days. Tesla asks Robert to take care of his pigeons, should something happen to him. While feeding his pigeons with Robert Johnson.

1943, January 6, Tesla summons a messenger boy to deliver an envelope containing $100 for Mark Twain, his old friend. Twain, of course, had been dead for some time, but Tesla arguably insists that Twain had visited his room the night before.

1943, January 7, Exact stroke of midnight the New Yorker hotel is lit with soft falling snow as three pigeons fly away from the third floor window outside room 3327. The room lit flickers and then the light goes out

1943, On Jan. 7, Tesla died virtually destitute and alone at age 86. His estate amounted to little more than $2,000.

Next morning, the hotel maid Alice Monaghan, ignored a “Do not disturb” sign that had been in place for two days and opened Tesla’s door to find him dead. The maid runs out of room 3327 screaming. Within fifteen minutes the FBI arrives, taped off the two room occupied by Tesla and his body has been removed. Several agents are going through his belongings and have called on a lock smith to open his safe. Tesla’s nephew, Sova Kosanovic’ has arrived with his assistant, shocked to find the FBI and his uncle’s body has been removed. He sees the lock smith leaving and is very suspicious and angry that his uncle’s things are being tampered with, not to mention his body is gone. He is allowed to walk through noticing the safe opened and his papers tampered with.

Within a day, the Immigration Department takes over on the FBI. The two entities are fighting over rights, but Immigration has the paperwork to take over. All of the papers, and there are hundreds of thousands are all being logged, put in barrels and loaded on trucks.

1943, January 10, Mayor LaGuardia gives a speech over the radio heard all over the city. The funeral will take place at the “Cathedral of St. John the Devine” He requests that there will be no political agenda and the Serbs are to sit on one side and the Croats on the other side.

1943, January 12, more than 2,000 people poured in to the “Cathedral of St. John the Devine”. Oscar Gavrilovitch of the Yugoslav Consul of New York served as head usher. At the altar, King Peter II of Yugoslavia sent a huge floral offering, which the funeral directors placed near the head of the casket. The casket was draped with the American flag, as Tesla was an American citizen; the Yugoslavian government honored him by making his funeral a state function. Constantine Fotitich, Yugoslavian ambassador to the United States represented Yugoslavia. Three pigeons fly by the window and circle around the casket. United States President and Mrs. Roosevelt send a message with their condolences, Mayor La Giardia. Attending were Heads of states from Yugoslavia, Croatia, Russia British Columbia and France, Kings and Queens. Tesla’s journalist friend, Kenneth Swezey, settled in the front row with Tesla’s nephew.

1943, April the Lawsuit against wireless communication patents given to Marconi were over-turned and restored back to Tesla; all seventeen patents including radio, sadly three months after Tesla passed.

The Memorial center „Nikola Tesla“ Smiljan