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Antarctica

Antarctica map

Map from Worldatlas.com

 

 

Antarctic Penguins

 

Scientists at British Antarctic Survey (BAS) have produced the most detailed map of underneath Antarctica — its rock bed.

BEDMAP is a close-up view of the landscape beneath the Antarctic icesheet and incorporates decades of survey data acquired by planes, satellites, ships and even researchers on dog-drawn sleds.

 

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this composite image on January 27, 2009

Antarctica: First 100 Years Video

 

The Wilkins Ice Shelf

Credit: Mark Terry

http://www.theantarcticachallenge.com

 

 

The elevation of the ice sheet shows the higher dome of the East Antarctic ice sheet and the narrow connection between it and the West Antarctic ice sheet

 

A view from a science flight over Antarctica: what sea ice looks like from 20,000 ft. straight up.

Credit:NASA Operation Ice bridge

A heavily crevassed area of Pine Island Glacier. Shows you how very difficult it would be to travel and work on the surface of this glacier. Data are best collected from aircraft flying over the glacier or from space.

Credit:NASA Operation Ice bridge

The calving front of Pine Island Glacier. This is the end of the glacier where pieces of ice break apart from the floating glacier and become icebergs.

Credit:NASA Operation Ice bridge


  • Forest and woodland: 0%

  • Other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

  • Area:14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered)

Comparing the sizes of Antarctica and the United States

Antarctica in 5 minutes Video

  • Terrain:about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

  • Elevation extremes:lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

 

Antarctica NASA RADARSTAT Image

NASA RADARSTAT Image

 

Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Antarctica  has some seven million cubic miles of ice, representing some 90 percent of the world's total.  The ice averages one and a half miles in thickness (7,100 feet-2,164 meters), with the thickest ice being almost three miles thick (15,7000 feet-4,785 meters). 

Antarctica Time lapse: A Year on Ice

credit: http://www.antarcticimages.com

 

 

Antarctica is as large as the United States and Mexico combined. If the West Antarctic ice sheet were to melt, global seas would rise by 15 to 20 feet. If the East sheet were to melt as well, seas would rise by as much as 200 feet, swamping many oceanic islands and redrawing the world's coastlines. Antarctica's ice is so heavy that it compresses the land surface over much of the continent to below sea level. 

antarctica ice shelf map 

Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, and windiest continent despite containing 70 percent of the world's freshwater, much of Antarctica is a desert, with the annual snow accumulation over much of East Antarctica being the equivalent of less than two inches of rainfall. 

ntarctica sattelite image nasa

AVHRR, NDVI, Seawifs, MODIS, NCEP, DMSP and Sky2000 star catalog; AVHRR and Seawifs texture: Reto Stockli; Visualization: Marit Jentoft-Nilsen NASA Visible Earth

 

Only two native vascular plants, the Antarctic hair grass Deschampsia antarctica and a cushion-forming pearlwort, Colobanthus quitensis, survive south of 56°S. They occur in small clumps near the shore of the west coast of Antarctic Peninsula. Also about 150 lichens, 30 mosses, some fungi and one liverwort can be found. More than 300 species of non-marine algae have been found in Antarctica.

 

Antarctica Facts

  • Antarctica truly is the “last place on earth.” It wasn’t discovered until 1820 and explorers didn’t reach the South Pole until 1911.

  • Antarctica is the coldest continent; temperatures in the winter can drop below minus 100°F (minus 73°C). The lowest temperature ever recorded on earth came from Russia’s Vostok Station: minus 128.6°F (minus 89.2°C) on July 21,1983.

  • Antarctica is also the driest continent, in fact it is almost entirely desert. Very little snow falls on the interior of the continent. However, because it is so cold, whatever snow does fall doesn’t melt. Over time this little amount of snow (just a few inches per year) has slowly accumulated into a massive ice cap.

  • About 99% of Antarctica is covered by snow and ice. The ice thickness reaches 4 km (2.4 miles) in some places. This ice flows off of the continent creating numerous floating ice shelves where the flowing ice meets the ocean. These ice shelves in turn give rise to many icebergs.

  • The Antarctic ice cap contains about 70% of the planet’s fresh water and about 90% of its ice.

Penguins in front of Mount Erebus

Penguins in front of Mount Erebus, Paul Rodgers New Zealand Defence Force

  • The southernmost active volcano in the word, Mt. Erebus, forms an island at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. This mountain rises more than 3,700 meters (12,100 feet) above the surrounding Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound area. Two Antarctic research stations, Scott Base (N.Z.) and McMurdo Station (U.S.) are located on the southern tip of this volcanic island.

  • Almost all of Antarctica lies within the Antarctic Circle (66°33’ South Latitude). All points south of this imaginary line experience at least one day of 24-hour daylight during summer and one day of 24-hour darkness in the winter. Further south the periods of complete daylight and complete darkness last much longer (up to about 4 months each per year)

  • There are no countries in Antarctica, the continent is governed by an international treaty

  • Antarctica has no true permanent residents. Fewer than 1,000 people winter over in a given year; the summer population is substantially higher as scientists and support staff from over 27 countries converge on the continent.

http://www.theantarcticachallenge.com

 

The Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty System map

The Antarctic Treaty System is the whole complex of arrangements made for the purpose of regulating relations among states in the Antarctic. At its heart is the Antarctic Treaty itself. The original Parties to the Treaty were the 12 nations active in the Antarctic during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58. The Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961. The Consultative Parties comprise the original Parties and a further fourteen States that have become Consultative Parties by acceding to the Treaty and demonstrating their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity there.

The primary purpose of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord." To this end it prohibits military activity, except in support of science; prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of nuclear waste; promotes scientific research and the exchange of data; and holds all territorial claims in abeyance. The Treaty applies to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves and islands.

The Treaty is augmented by Recommendations adopted at Consultative Meetings, by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 1991), and by two separate conventions dealing with the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (London 1972), and the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Canberra 1980). The Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (Wellington 1988), negotiated between 1982 and 1988, will not enter into force.

http://www.ats.aq/index_e.htm

Introduction Antarctica
Background:
Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up a range of year-round and seasonal stations, camps, and refuges to support scientific research in Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
Geography Antarctica
Location:
continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Geographic coordinates:
90 00 S, 0 00 E
Map references:
Antarctic Region
Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)
note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe
Area - comparative:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
0 km
note: see entry on Disputes - international
Coastline:
17,968 km
Maritime claims:
Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry
Climate:
severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Terrain:
about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Natural resources:
iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2005)
Natural hazards:
katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Environment - current issues:
in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled Antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Geography - note:
the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
People Antarctica
Population:
no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and summer-only staffed research stations
note: 28 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty); the population doing and supporting science or engaged in the management and protection of the Antarctic region varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel, including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research, are present in the waters of the treaty region; peak summer (December-February) population - 4,219 total; Argentina 667, Australia 200, Brazil 40, Bulgaria 15, Chile 237, China 70, Czech Republic 20, Ecuador 26, Finland 20, France 100, France and Italy jointly 45, Germany 90, India 65, Italy 90, Japan 125, South Korea 70, NZ 85, Norway 44, Peru 28, Poland 40, Romania 3, Russia 429, South Africa 80, Spain 28, Sweden 20, Ukraine 24, UK 205, US 1,293, Uruguay 60 (2007-2008); winter (June-August) station population - 1,088 total; Argentina 176, Australia 62, Brazil 12, Chile 96, China 29, France 26, France and Italy jointly 13, Germany 9, India 25, Italy 2, Japan 40, South Korea 18, NZ 10, Norway 7, Poland 12, Russia 148, South Africa 10, Ukraine 12, UK 37, US 337, Uruguay 9 (2008); research stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south of 60 degrees south latitude) by National Antarctic Programs: year-round stations - 38 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, France 1, France and Italy jointly 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 5, South Africa 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (2008); a range of seasonal-only (summer) stations, camps, and refuges - Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Brazil, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK, US, and Uruguay (2007-2008); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (March 2008 est.)
Government Antarctica
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antarctica
Government type:
Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Delhi, India in April/May 2007; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2007, there were 46 treaty member nations: 28 consultative and 18 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998) China (1983/1985), Ecuador (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989), Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Belarus (2006), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1962/1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection and management and 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Legal system:
Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; more generally, access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the Antarctic Treaty; note - US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit its website at www.nsf.gov
Economy Antarctica
Economy - overview:
Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for Antarctica's limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2005-06 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 128,081 metric tons (estimated fishing from the area covered by the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which extends slightly beyond the Antarctic Treaty area). Unregulated fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), is a serious problem. The CCAMLR determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 36,460 tourists visited the Antarctic Treaty area in the 2006-07 Antarctic summer, up from the 30,877 visitors the previous year (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO); this does not include passengers on overflights). Nearly all of them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips last approximately two weeks.
Communications Antarctica
Telephones - main lines in use:
0; note - information for US bases only (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: local systems at some research stations
domestic: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number of locations
international: country code - none allocated; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) to and from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
FM 2, shortwave 1 (information for US bases only); note - many research stations have a local FM radio station (2007)
Radios:
NA
Television broadcast stations:
1 (cable system with 6 channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo - information for US bases only) (2002)
Televisions:
several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
note: information for US bases only (2001)
Internet country code:
.aq
Internet hosts:
7,748 (2008)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
NA
Transportation Antarctica
Airports:
25 (2008)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 6 (2008)
Heliports:
53
note: all year-round and seasonal stations operated by National Antarctic Programs stations have some kind of helicopter landing facilities, prepared (helipads) or unprepared (2007)
Ports and terminals:
there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), and Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent; relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states parties to the Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude south, have to be complied with (see "Legal System"); The Hydrographic Committee on Antarctica (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic surveying and nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it coordinates and facilitates provision of accurate and appropriate charts and other aids to navigation in support of safety of navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and which contributes resources and/or data to IHO Chart coverage of the area; members of HCA are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Ecuador, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, NZ, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and US (2007)
Military Antarctica
Military - note:
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
Transnational Issues Antarctica
Disputes - international:
the Antarctic Treaty freezes, and most states do not recognize, the land and maritime territorial claims made by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom (some overlapping) for three-fourths of the continent; the US and Russia reserve the right to make claims; no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; the International Whaling Commission created a sancturary around the entire continent to deter catches by countries claiming to conduct scientific whaling; Australia has established a similar preserve in the waters around its territorial claim

View of Sheldon Glacier with Mount Barre in the background, seen from Ryder Bay near Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctica. Image credit: British Antarctic Survey

The landscape of Alexander Island, Antarctica, as seen by NASA's DC-8 on Oct. 24, 2011. Credit: NASA/Michael Studinger

The calving front of Thwaites Ice Shelf looking at the ice below the water's surface. Note how the water acts as a blue filter. Credit: NASA / Jim Yungel

Antarctica BAS image

 

http://mesh.biology.washington.edu/penguinProject/home

 

 

Credit: British Antarctic Survey, New Zealand Antarctic Program, Seal Conservation Society, U.K. Royal Navy, The BBC, Northeastern University,NOAA,CIA,NASA